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  1. NOTE: Readings for tutorials and essays are available on a separate list.

  2. SECTION 1 - Anthropology of Science 62 items
    Weeks 1 and 2 - Dr Christos Lynteris
    1. Lecture 1. The Anthropology of Science 10 items
      Arguing that the anthropology of science can no longer be limited to the anthropology of “the culture of science”, this lecture will introduce students to a range of scientific sites of anthropological study such as nuclear test sites, disaster simulators and biotechnology units. The lecture will introduce ways in which the anthropological study of science necessitates both novel ethnographic practices and the adoption of theoretical frameworks that point beyond the “socially constructed” nature of scientific method and knowledge.
      1. Required Readings 6 items
        1. Epistemic cultures: how the sciences make knowledge - K. Knorr-Cetina 1999

          Book  [Introduction]

        2. 'Introduction' to Cultures without culturalism: the making of scientific knowledge - Karine Chemla, Evelyn Fox Keller

          Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      2. Supplementary Readings 4 items
        1. Anthropology and science: epistemologies in practice - Jeanette Edwards, Penelope Harvey, Peter Wade 2007

          Book  [Introduction]

    2. Lecture 2. Clinical Ethnographies 11 items
      A rich field of anthropological research, clinics and hospitals have been a prime site of ethnographic study. This lecture examines the emergence of the clinic as a site of social scientific study, and the ways in which anthropologists have engaged with the study of clinics and hospitals, adapting and advancing social theoretical frameworks and approaches of the clinic.
      1. Required Readings 6 items
        1. Hospital ethnography: introduction - Sjaak van der Geest, Kaja Finkler 2004

          Article 

        2. The birth of the clinic: an archaeology of medical perception - Michel Foucault 1989

          Book  [Esp. Chapter 7 & 8] Available in the library and as an e-book.

        3. Beyond surgery: injury, healing, and religion at an Ethiopian hospital - Anita Hannig 2017

          Book  [Chapter 5] Available in the library and as an e-book.

        4. When the field is a ward or a clinic: Hospital ethnography - Debbi Long, Cynthia Hunter, Sjaak van der Geest 2008

          Article 

      2. Supplementary Readings 5 items
    3. Lecture 3. Laboratory Ethnographies 9 items
      The application of ethnography in the laboratory has been a highly innovative and far- reaching turn in the social sciences, leading to the establishment of key theoretical frameworks like Actor Network Theory. This lecture will examine the importance of laboratory ethnography for understanding scientific practices, and its impact on the study of science beyond the confines of the laboratory.
      1. Required Readings 5 items
        1. Laboratory life: the construction of scientific facts - Bruno Latour, Steve Woolgar 1986

          Book  [Chapter 2]

      2. Supplementary readings 4 items
    4. Lecture 4. Interspecies Ethnographies 11 items
      Whether it concerns the migratory birds thought of being percolators of deadly influenza viruses, or the social life of Meerkats, over the past decade anthropologists have increasingly focused on the scientific study of non-human animals. This lecture focuses on emerging frameworks of interspecies ethnography as this applies to the anthropological study of science.
      1. Required Readings 6 items
        1. Technology, inclusivity and the rogue: bats and the war against the ‘invisible enemy’. - James Fairhead 2017

          Article  Accepted version, prior to print within 'Conservation and Society.'.

        2. Keck, F. and Christos Lynteris, Introduction: Special Issue Anthropology of Zoonoses,

          Medicine, Anthropology, Theory [in print, available via Moodle]

        3. Mosquito trails: ecology, health, and the politics of entanglement - Alexander M. Nading 2014

          Book  [Chapters 1 & 2] Available in the library and as an e-book.

      2. Supplementary Readings 5 items
    5. Lecture 5. Epidemic Ethnographies 12 items
      The ethnographic study of epidemic outbreaks is the fastest growing field in medical anthropology. Faced with infectious disease epidemics, like Ebola and Zika, epidemiologists have sought ethnographic research and for the first time invited anthropologists to operate systematically in epidemic sites, like Ebola-stricken West Africa. The lecture will examine the object of anthropological research in such emergencies and how this faces anthropologists with new theoretical, methodological and ethical challenges.
      1. Required Readings 6 items
        1. Will to live: AIDS therapies and the politics of survival - João Guilherme Biehl, Torben Eskerod 2007

          Book  [Chapter 3]

      2. Supplementary Readings 6 items
        1. Nading, A.2016. 'Diseases That Don't Fit,' Anthropology News 57:7: e76–e80. 

    6. Lecture 6. Anthropological-Scientific Collaboration 9 items
      Ethnography offers unique opportunities for collaboration between anthropologists and scientists. Whether this concerns the study and amelioration of the well-being of patients in hospitals, the critique and reform of experimental systems, or the understanding of and effective response to epidemic emergencies, collaboration is key not only for the production of solid ethnography, but also for socially responsible scientific practice. This lecture examines the practical, ethical and epistemological challenges of this collaboration, focusing in particular on the collaboration between anthropology and medicine.
      1. Required Readings 4 items
        1. Writing at the margin: discourse between anthropology and medicine - Arthur Kleinman 1995

          Book  [Introduction] Available in the library and as an e-book.

      2. Supplementary Readings 5 items
  3. SECTION 2 - Approaching the City 35 items
    Weeks 3 and 4 - Dr Adam Reed
    1. This part of the course considers what an urban anthropology can bring to 'classic' theories of the city. It invites students to consider what an anthropological approach to the city might look like; and whether there can ever be anthropology of the city as opposed to anthropology in the city. Students will be introduced to grand urban theory (debates and historical accounts that seek to grasp the nature of the city as a social phenomenon and describe its processes), but also to urban ethnography and ethnographic descriptions of particular cities. Attention will be paid to the diverse ways of knowing and seeing the city, and to the range of strategies that make identification possible. For example, the tendency of popular and academic commentators to reify the city as a person, to ascribe it with what appears as a coherent character and atmosphere. The course will draw on anthropological and historical studies from many different cities, including my own work in London. As well as lecture room teaching and student reading, the broader implications for students' upcoming research projects will be explored.

    2. Lecture 1. Theories of the City 4 items
      We shall consider some of the ‘classic’ theories of the city, and what an anthropological perspective can bring to them. Attention will fall on ‘the city’ as abstract category and individuated place; students will be asked to consider its qualities as an artefact and object of knowledge. This includes examining the kinds of historical trajectories ascribed to cities and the kinds of anxieties attempts to know the city produce (such as fears that cities are changing took quickly, that they are too vast and complex ever to know completely). Participants will be encouraged to read grand urban theory with these kinds of questions in mind.
      1. Cities: reimagining the urban - Ash Amin, N. J. Thrift 2002

        Book  See Introduction (digitised) and chapters 1-2.

      2. The metropolian and mental life - Georg Simmel

        Chapter  (Digitised copy available on Tutorial/Essay Readings list.)

      3. The Crystallization of the City - Lewis Mumford

        Chapter  Ch. 2 in The City in history: its origins, transformations and its prospects

    3. Lecture 2. Anthropology of the City 5 items
      Here we ask: what defines urban anthropology? Is it merely the fact that anthropologists conduct fieldwork in cities or can one begin to consider anthropology of cities? The debate is illustrated by looking at a few examples (Athens, Benares, London) where ethnographic descriptions of cities have been attempted.
      1. Modern Greek Lessons: A Primer in Historical Constructivism - Faubion, James D. 1996

        Book  Chaper 2, "Remembering and Remodeling: The Metaleptic Metropolis". (Available in the Library and as an e-book)

      2. Death in Banaras - Jonathan Parry 1994

        Book  Chapter 1, "Through 'divine eyes'"

    4. Lecture 3. The City as Person: Anthropology and Urban Sketch Writing 7 items
      Here we examine the historical relationship between anthropological writing and travel writing, and in particular the development of urban sketch writing, which seeks to approach to know the city as an entity that possesses person-­‐like qualities. Sketch writers claim to be able to describe and capture the city as a whole by paying close attention to what they diagnose as its prevailing personality or character. Participants are invited to consider what this legacy brings to urban theory and to the development of anthropology of the city.
      1. Routes: travel and translation in the late twentieth century - Clifford, James 1997

        Book  Chapter 3, "Spatial Practices: Fieldwork, Travel, and the Disciplining of Fieldwork"

      2. Reflections: essays, aphorisms, autobiographical writings - Walter Benjamin 2007

        Book  Read the essays entitled ‘Naples’, ‘Moscow’, ‘Marseilles’ and ‘A Berlin Chronicle’.

      3. Nights in the big city: Paris, Berlin, London, 1840-1930 - Schlör, Joachim 1998

        Book  Chapter 1, "Contradictory Reports from Night in the Big City"

    5. Lecture 4. The City and Kinship 5 items
      As well as reifying the city as a being or person, people often use it to draw out kin‐type relations. As an artefact, the city becomes a substitute for persons and for the divisions that define their relationships to each other. Here we reflect how classical anthropological categories such as gender, personhood and nationhood are reflected in the ways knowledge of cities is generated.
      1. Belonging in the two Berlins: kin, state, nation - Borneman, John 1992

        Book  Chapter 1, "Naming, categorizing, periodizing".

      2. Imagining the modern city - James Donald 1999

        Book  Read chapter 1.

      3. Streetwalking the metropolis: women, the city, and modernity - Parsons, Deborah L. 2000

        Book  Introduction: "Gendered Cartographies of Viewing"

      4. The country and the city - Williams, Raymond 1973

        Book  Read chapter 15.

    6. Lecture 5. Colonial and Postcolonial Cities: Planning and Modernism 5 items
      Here we consider the ways in which cities have been explicitly constructed as artifacts to demonstrate the power and authority of particular colonial and postcolonial state bodies. The notion that cities can embody political and social ideals, particular knowledge formations, and demonstrate their efficacy is explored through a range of examples (Brasilia, New Delhi, Cairo, Rabat).
      1. Colonising Egypt - Timothy Mitchell 1991

        Book  Chapters 2-3. Available in the Library and as an e-book. (Please note: there is limited simultaneous user access to the e-book - download the chapters rather than reading online.)

      2. French modern: norms and forms of the social environment - Rabinow, Paul 1995

        Book  Chapter 9, "Techno-Cosmopolitanism: Governing Morocco"

      3. The lettered city - A. Rama, J. C. Chasteen 1996

        Book  Chapter 1.

    7. Lecture 6. City as Map 5 items
      We consider cartographic expressions of the city. This includes attempts to know the city through mapping it or through trying to turn it into a map. As well as telling the story of the relationship between perspective, cities and maps, we examine alternative mapping techniques and attempts to subvert the kinds of order maps can impose (with particular reference to Morocco). Drawing on the previous lectures, we also look at the way social memory finds expression in public maps. Finally, we examine other kinds of artifacts generated by the desire to know the city better.
      1. In the Metro - Marc Augé 2002

        Book  Read Chapter 1.

      2. Impasse of the angels: scenes from a Moroccan space of memory - Stefania Pandolfo 1997

        Book  Read Chapter 1, "Topology of a City"

      3. The image of the city - Kevin Lynch 1965

        Book  Read chapter 3.

      4. The world on paper: the conceptual and cognitive implications of writing and reading - David R. Olson 1994

        Book  Read Chapter 10, "Representing the world in maps, diagrams, formulas, pictures and texts".

      5. The situationist city - Simon Sadler 1998

        Book  Read chapter 2.

    8. Lecture 7. Class exercise 3 items
      1. In this Class exercise we will use the following article as a springboard for a wider discussion about the contemporary relationships between New Media and Urban Knowledge:

      2. Break-out exercises will centre on getting students to focus on the ways in which specific new media forms of communication (i.e. Twitter, Facebook, Weblogs etc) impact or shape our engagement with specific cities, and how the idioms and relational forms of those new media animate how we think about connections between persons and urban environments.

         

        Please come prepared to talk about a specific form of new media that mediates your relationship to a place you know well.

  4. SECTION 3 - Ethnography as Experience, Ethnography as Genre 43 items
    Weeks 5 and 6 - Dr Melissa Demian
    1. Ethnography remains the canonical form in communicating research findings in social anthropology; indeed one could fairly be said to define the other. To help prepare you for your Ethnographic Encounters project, we will spend these two weeks interrogating what it is anthropologists mean when they talk about ethnography, and some of the dilemmas that have arisen as this idiosyncratic mode of research has developed and changed in the short history of the discipline.

    2. Lecture 1: Strangers in Strange Lands 8 items
      In the beginning, ethnography was about researchers throwing themselves into social environments that were as alien as possible to their own, and trying to make sense of them. Based on the travel narratives of the nineteenth century and earlier, ethnography shifted from a purely literary form to one that was intended to reproduce a particular set of research questions…but was the transition ever complete?
      1. The Muqaddimah: an introduction to history - Franz Rosenthal, Ibn Khaldūn 1967

        Book 

      2. Argonauts of the Western Pacific: an account of native enterprise and adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea - Bronislaw Malinowski 1922

        Book  Introduction: The subject, method, and scope of this enquiry. (1922 and subsequent editions.) [Available in the library and as an e-book.]

      3. Writing the new ethnography - H. Lloyd Goodall 2000

        Book 

      4. Ethnography: principles in practice - Martyn Hammersley, Paul Atkinson 2007 (electronic book)

        Book  1995 2nd edition available in the Main Library at classmark GN345.H2F95

      5. Ethnography - Alan Bryman 2001

        Book 

      6. Ethnography and virtual worlds: a handbook of method - Tom Boellstorff 2012 (electronic book)

        Book  Chapter 3: Ten myths about ethnography

    3. Lecture 2: Who is the Ethnographer? 6 items
      Does it matter who you are when you engage with others in the capacity of an ethnographer? What does it mean for the researcher to also be the instrument of research, and how does the ethnographer’s subject position affect the research? Ultimately, the ethnography produced is neither ‘about’ the researcher or the people she or he worked with, but the relationship between them.
      1. Reflexive ethnography: a guide to researching selves and others - Charlotte Aull Davies 1999

        Book  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      2. Kinky empiricism - Danilyn Rutherford 2012

        Article 

    4. Lecture 3: Where is the Field? 6 items
      Ethnography canonically is a result of ‘fieldwork’ – but what does this somewhat mystified term actually mean? To prepare you for this week’s encounters project workshop, we will consider how ethnography draws boundaries (or fails to draw them) between the ethnographer’s own life and that of the social environment in which fieldwork is conducted.
    5. Lecture 4: What Could Possibly Go Wrong? 8 items
      Ethnographic research sometimes works best when it isn’t working, or doesn’t seem to be. This week we will discuss the effects of the unexpected in ethnography: disaster, failure, or simply things going pear-shaped…and how these experiences sometimes produce the most powerful insights in ethnographic writing.
      1. The above is also reprinted in:

      2. Deadly words: witchcraft in the Bocage - Jeanne Favret-Saada, (trans.) Catherine Ann Cullen 1980

        Book 

    6. Lecture 5: Embodied Ethnography 7 items
      Even as ethnography has moved into new non-territorialised social settings – online contexts, financial systems, design projects, corporate collaborations, etc. – the importance of space and movement through space should not be discounted. This week we consider how to research cultural practices and social logics that are on the move. At the same time we ask, what is to be gained by sitting still and observing the itineraries of people and things as they circulate through space?
      1. The taste of ethnographic things: the senses in anthropology - Paul Stoller 1989

        Book  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      2. Doing sensory ethnography - Sarah Pink 2009

        Book  Re-sensing participant observation: sensory emplaced learning. pp.36-80

      3. The cultural biography of things: commoditization as process - Igor Kopytoff

        Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

    7. Lecture 6: Is an Ethical Ethnography Possible? 6 items
      Our final lecture will consider a perennial, and perennially fraught, topic in ethnographic research: the ethics of conducting this kind of research in the first place. Although now constrained – to a certain extent – by professional codes and the ethics committees of universities, it is still the case that the ethnographic relationship will almost invariably be characterised by asymmetries between the researcher and his or her interlocutors. Is this resolvable? Should it be resolved?
      1. Reciprocity - Sarah Maiter, Laura Simich, Nora Jacobson, Julie Wise 2008

        Article 

    8. Lecture 7: Film - Five Ways In, Dir. Mike Poltorak, Sonja Brühlmann, And Alyssa Lynes. 73 Min. United Kingdom, 2014. 1 item
      Five Ways In is an experiment in visual, sensory, and collaborative ethnography. Taking Contact Improvisation as both its subject matter and its creative inspiration, an anthropologist and his dancer collaborators use the medium of ethnography to explore how both anthropology and dance can be made into processes of ‘co-creation’.
      1. For more information on the film and its creative/research team:

        https://researchingcontactimprovisation.com/

  5. SECTION 4 - Ethnographic Encounters 15 items
    Weeks 7 and 8 - Dr Tony Crook
    1. Lecture 1: Ethnographic Encounters 3 items
      Introduction to the Ethnographic Encounters project. Devising a project, and focusing on what counts as an Encounter. We will begin to look at what kinds of story these moments of interaction are able to tell about social life, and how we might capture this through observations and narratives. Boleslavsky says ‘practice counts, and only practice counts’: developing an eye for detail and an ear for a phrase takes work. La Fontaine says ‘observe, observe, observe’: what are the differences between what people say and what people do?
      1. Acting - Richard Boleslavsky 1987 (electronic book)

        Book  Chapter on 'Observation'

      2. Ethnography - Alan Bryman 2001

        Book 

    2. Lecture 2: Methods and Design 2 items
      We look at what stages will a project go through and how to go about fieldwork. How to balance an impulse to use ‘impartial scientific methods’ with the necessity of using our own social and moral reactions as a key method? The focus will be on the practicalities of how to design a project around a set of questions we want to ask, and ideas of what kinds of anthropological story we might want to tell about an encounter.
    3. Lecture 3: Observation, Note-Taking & Ethics 3 items
      In this lecture you will work in small groups to develop an eye and ear for detail, by considering some issues of observation and note-taking by studying film excerpts. Secondly, the consideration of the ethical implications of fieldwork is an important part of research we will work through an exercise in ethics.
    4. Lecture 4: Telling Stories 2 items
      We look at what kinds of wider story people might be telling in their encounters do we tell stories about the world in order to make it a comfortable place to live? What else is going on in these encounters? Alongside the need to develop and practice our skills in observation and listening is the need to practice the skill in recognizing and telling anthropological stories only by trying more and more will we narrow down to what really counts.
      1. Experiments in thinking about ethnological material - G. Bateson

        Chapter  2000 edition also available in the library at classmark: GN8.B2G00

    5. Lecture 5: Putting Experience Into Words 2 items
      We look at the practicalities and difficulties of putting experience into words. How can we convey what we know? What kinds of details and phrases might make an encounter compelling and generate an evocative image for a reader? We revisit the balancing of ‘social science’ and personal voice how much of each is enough?
      1. Fieldwork and its Interpretation

        Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

    6. Lecture 6: Positioning The Author 1 item
      Having looked carefully at an anthropologist’s place in social encounters in the field we discuss here what kind of social encounter happens when we read and write ethnography what are the aesthetics we learn by which to make sense of the social relations drawn together by a text? (ie different people’s words are brought together in the same sentence, some from the field, some from the literature).
      1. Positioning the Author - Paloma Gay y Blasco, Huon Wardle

        Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

    7. Lecture 7: Supporting a Story, Referencing & Sources Of Literature 2 items
      Ethnographic stories need supports of different types in order to be convincing, and compelling. Here we take up our final theme of considering our own part in the stories we wish to tell and our own place in our encounters with the anthropological literature. We also explore the various sources of literature and references, and consider the means by which references can be found and deployed.
      1. People in Context - Paloma Gay y Blasco, Huon Wardle

        Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      2. Reflexive ethnography: a guide to researching selves and others - Charlotte Aull Davies 1999

        Book  [Chapters 10 & 11] Available in the library and as an e-book.

  6. SECTION 5 - Anthropological Encounters 50 items
    Weeks 9 and 10 - Dr Stan Frankland
    1. In this part of the module, I will be looking at a number of disparate ways in which contemporary anthropology deals with the changing world in which we all live. By looking at certain subjects on the fringes of the modern discipline, I will hope to show you how almost anything can be anthropological. By taking some old anthropological theories and some interdisciplinary texts, I will attempt to show how they can be revivified and reworked in relation to issues both familiar and strange.

    2. Lecture 1. The Anthology of Flip Flops 7 items
      In this lecture, we will begin with a simple recycled object. How can we turn this tourist trinket into an object worthy of anthropological investigation? To answer this question, we will watch a short film and frame our understanding of the film in the context of Appadurai’s work on the social life of things.
      1. Flip Flotsam - Lucy Bateman, Etienne Olif 2003

        Audio document  Documentary film

      2. The comfort of things - Daniel Miller 2009

        Book 

    3. Lecture 2. Contemporary Mythologies 8 items
      From the armchair musings of Frazer through to the almost unreadable structuralism of the dreaded Lévi-Strauss, myth has been one of the key topics within the development of social anthropology. This lecture avoids these ‘primitive’ bound theories in favour of Barthes' understanding of our own mythological and semiotic systems. Just how myth bound are we? And what role do myths play in our own understanding of the world?
      1. Mythologies - Roland Barthes, Annette Lavers (trans.) 1993

        Book  Previous editions also available.

      2. Monster anthropology in Australasia and beyond - Yasmine Musharbash, Geir Henning Presterudstuen 2014

        Book  See chapters by Manning, Onnudottir and Stasch.

      3. 21st-Century Mythologies - Peter Conrad 2014

        Audio document  Radio series from 2014 in which Conrad updates Barthes Mythologies.

    4. Lecture 3. The Ritual Process Revisited 9 items
      Anthropology has always been concerned with ritual activities. Turner’s elaboration of Van Gennep has become almost an intellectual given within the discipline. Ideas of liminality and communitas permeate the anthropological discourse. In this lecture, we revisit these ideas and hone in on his often forgotten concept of the liminoidal.
      1. Liquid modernity - Zygmunt Bauman 2000

        Book 

      2. The time of the tribes: the decline of individualism in mass society - Michel Maffesoli 1996

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      3. The ritual process: structure and anti-structure - Victor Witter Turner, Roger D. Abrahams 1995

        Book 

    5. Lecture 4. The Anthropology of Non-Places 6 items
      Spaces or landscapes of travel and mobility are frequently referred to as being ‘placeless’, ‘abstract’, and ‘ageographical’. In this lecture, we will examine the work of Augé and his characterization of spaces such as airports and shopping malls as ‘non‐places’. We will also move beyond this rather dystopian view to look at the heterogeneity and materiality of the social networks bound up with the production of such environments.
      1. In the metro - Marc Augé, Tom Conley (trans.) 2002

        Book 

    6. Lecture 5. The Anthropology of Pirates 8 items
      From the swashbuckling of Errol Flynn through to the pantomime of Johnny Depp, the figure of the pirate has remained a potent symbol within the Euro-­‐American imagination. But what is piracy today? How has anthropology looked at the subject? And what can we learn from these encounters?
    7. Lecture 6. Punk Anthropology 10 items
      In the late 1970s, academics began to focus on youth groups that were deemed to be oppositional to the dominant society. Initially, groups such as punks and skinheads were viewed as class based subcultures bonded together by a shared taste in music, fashion and ownership of a unique form of cultural capital. How has this view changed with time and technological transformation?
      1. Intimations of postmodernity - Zygmunt Bauman 1992

        Book 

      2. Distinction: a social critique of the judgement of taste - Pierre Bourdieu, Richard Nice (trans) 2010

        Book 

      3. The time of the tribes: the decline of individualism in mass society - Michel Maffesoli 1996

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    8. Lecture 7: Film - Beautiful Dachau (Marcus 2008) 1 item
      1. Beautiful Dachau is an experimental documentary that observes streams of visitors to the Dachau concentration camp, now a popular tourist attraction. 800,000 people visit the site annually.

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