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  1. Key Module Readings 3 items
    1. History and theory in anthropology - Alan Barnard 2000

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book

    2. Anthropology and anthropologists: the modern British school - Kuper, Adam 1996

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book

    3. How to read ethnography - Paloma Gay y Blasco, Huon Wardle 2007

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book

  2. SECTION ONE: The Emergence of Scientific Anthropology (Weeks 1 & 2) - Dr Huon Wardle

  3. TOPIC 1: SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY FROM 'ARMCHAIR' TO 'FIELD' 28 items
    1. Lecture topics for this week:

      1. Social Evolutionism, diffusionism and Functionalism.

      2. Totem, taboo, mana and Nineteenth Century models of 'savage' and 'civilised'

      3. Rivers, Malinowski and the development of 'ethnography' and 'the field'

    2. Evolutionary notions of the ‘primitive’ – magic and sacrifice, totem, taboo, mana 10 items
      We examine the origin of the concept of ‘primitive society’ in the nineteenth century. This includes the concern for the origin of religion, evolutionist thinking and the ranking of societies from ‘magical’ and ‘animistic’ peoples to the ‘modern’ and ‘scientific’ ones the anthropologists imagined themselves to belong to. While Lewis Henry Morgan provides one of the first analytical ethnographies of a society with his study The League of the Iroquois, his further work argues that there is a staged progress from matriarchal hordes to modern individualist states. Four Scottish anthropologists – Mclennan, Robertson-Smith, Lang and Frazer played a key role in laying the foundations of social anthropological thought with their voluminous ‘armchair’ researches: this work has been widely criticized but certain of its themes continue to provoke debate right up to the present.
      1. Primitive classification - Emile Durkheim, Marcel Mauss 1963 [1903]

        Book 

    3. On the emergence of ‘ethnography’ and ‘the field’: the world from the local point of view 7 items
      We examine the development of ethnographic research by participant observation. Knowledge based on fieldwork, aimed at showing what Malinowski called the ‘native’s point of view’, changed how so-called ‘primitive’ societies were perceived. The goal became one of understanding concepts in context and giving them analytical status in ethnographic writing.
      1. Baloma - Bronislaw Malinowski

        Chapter 

      2. Malinowski - Adam Kuper

        Chapter 

      3. Miller, Jonathan. 1970. "The Dog Beneath the Skin", The Listener, July 20

    4. Further reading 9 items
      1. Douglas, Mary. 1979. "Taboo" in R. Cavendish (ed.) Man, Myth and Magic.

      2. Race and History - Claude Lévi-Strauss

        Chapter 

      3. The invention of culture - Roy Wagner 1981

        Book  Read: "Chapter 1: The assumption of culture"

    5. WORKSHOP

      We review questions raised by Nineteenth Century anthropology and the emergence of the fieldwork approach.

  4. TOPIC 2: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL PROCESS AND CHANGE 50 items
    1. Lecture topics for this week:

      1. (e.g.) Baloma: Social categories versus social processes: what people say and what they do are not the same.

      2.(e.g.) Kula: Exchange as a fundamental aspect of society.

    2. On the idea of ‘function’ and the Malinowski school 11 items
      At its simplest, functionalism describes a question addressed to particular ideas and behaviours; 'socially speaking, what use are these practices for these people?' The first lectures for this part of the course deal with the emergence and refinement of the ideas of structure and function in social anthropology from the 1930s to the mid-1950s. We look initially at some of the classic functionalist ethnographies of the 1930s. These texts demonstrate a focus on small-scale (often island-based) societies and a common aim of showing how social roles, rights, responsibilities, institutions and behaviours are coordinated and respond functionally to basic human needs. The emphasis in these functionalist works is on methodological induction – collecting as large a quantity of observations as possible in order to arrive at generalisations. Functionalism as a movement is closely connected to the seminars run by Malinowski at the LSE during the 1930s. Gellner has distinguished function as the method of collecting data with a view to the social usefulness criterion, from function as a doctrine (the principle that everything in a society has a 'purpose' within the whole). He argues that the latter assumption is suspect, while the former idea has enduring value.
      1. The reaction against social evolutionism and diffusionism 3 items
        As an approach, functionalism is in part a reaction against the historical speculation characteristic of evolutionist and diffusionist writing. E.g. --
        1. Mana Again - A. M. Hocart 1922

          Article 

        2. A general theory of magic - Marcel Mauss 2001

          Book  Especially Ch. 4(3) on ‘Mana’.

      2. Malinowski School Ethnographies 8 items
        1. Anthropology and anthropologists: the modern British school - Kuper, Adam 1996

          Book  Read: Chapter 3 (‘The 1930s and 1940s’). Available in the Library and as an e-book

        2. Peasant life in China: a field study of country life in the Yangtze valley - Hsiao-t`ung Fei 1980

          Book  Downloadable via www.archive.org (download options on right of page, e.g. TIFF file)

        3. We, the Tikopia: a sociological study of kinship in primitive Polynesia - Firth, Raymond, Malinowski, Bronislaw 1983

          Book  (Esp. Chapter VI)

    3. On the idea of ‘social structure’ 17 items
      Structural functionalism analyses society as a system of interrelating parts asking the question ‘what is the function of X practice in relation to the overall social structure?’ The approach, drawing inspiration from Radcliffe-Brown, comes to the fore in the 1940s, as a more abstract anthropology also emerges. Radcliffe-Brown had placed weight on a view of society as akin to an articulated social organism (an idea of Herbert Spencer’s). The emphasis in structural functionalist texts is more analytical and deductive –models and holistic social logics are applied to a body of observations. Evans-Pritchard’s The Nuer represents a high point of this development.
      1. Social Structure 7 items
        1. Structure and function in primitive society: essays and addresses - A. R. Radcliffe-Brown 1979

          Book  Introduction and chapter 1. Additional copies available at classmark GN490.R2F65.

        2. Anthropology: The Basics - Peter Metcalf 2005

          Book  Chapters 3 and 4

        3. Witch Beliefs and Social Structure - Monica Hunter Wilson 1951

          Article  (Or chapter 22 in Marwick M. (ed) Witchcraft and Sorcery)

        4. African political systems - Meyer Fortes, E. E. Evans-Pritchard 1987

          Book  Additional copies available at classmarks JQ1879.A15F7P8F66 and JQ1879.A15F7P8.

        5. Conformity and Conflict - James P. Spradley, David W. McCurdy 1980, 1987

          Book  Read: ‘Primitive Kinship’

      2. Additional Readings 10 items
        1. How to read ethnography - Paloma Gay y Blasco, Huon Wardle 2007

          Book  Read: Chapter 3 (‘Relationships and Meanings’)

        2. The concept of kinship: and other essays on anthropological method and explanation - Gellner, Ernest 1987

          Book  Chapter 7 (‘Sociology and Social Anthropology’)

        3. Anthropology and the crisis of the intellectuals - Grimshaw, Anna, Hart, Keith 1996

          Book 

        4. Dream of the red chamber - Cao, Xueqin, Gao, E., Wang, Chi-Chen 1983

          Book 

        5. The essential Edmund Leach - Leach, Edmund Ronald, Laidlaw, James, Hugh-Jones, Stephen c2000

          Book  Vol. 1, chapter 1.8 (‘Social Anthropology: A Natural Science of Society?’)

        6. Social anthropology - Lienhardt, Godfrey 1966

          Book  Chapter 5 (‘Kinship and Affinity’).

        7. Anthropology: The Basics - Peter Metcalf 2005

          Book  Chapters 3 and 4.

        8. On growth and form - D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson 1994, c1961

          Book 

    4. Time and process in ethnographic accounts 20 items
      Lecture themes: (1) The time factor; (2) Radical change; (3) Cyclical and processual change; (4) Enduring legacies
      1. Lecture topics:

        1. Time – Ecological, Structural and Processual

        2. Time – Political, Transformational and Ideological

        3. Time – Developmental, Cyclical, Personal

      2. While anthropology came to be defined by its fieldwork-based, holistic, synchronic emphases during 1930-1955, criticisms of the functionalist approach appear quite early; from, amongst others, Gregory Bateson whose early affiliations were to Rivers and Haddon in Cambridge. Anthropologists such as Gluckman and Barth began to build situational and individualistic diversity into their accounts that challenged the 'social organic' view of Radcliffe-Brown. Firth's work on 'social organisation' also critiques the rigidity of social structure as explanation. Edmund Leach's Political Systems of Highland Burma is a key moment in this revision of structural functionalist orthodoxy, marking the opening up, from the 1960s onwards, of a more intellectualist, less empirically focused movement – structuralism.

      3. Time, Change and History in Anthropology 6 items
        1. Political systems of Highland Burma: a study of Kachin social structure - Edmund Ronald Leach, Raymond Firth 1970

          Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

        2. Oedipus and Job in West African religion - Fortes, Meyer, Horton, Robin 1983

          Book 

        3. The developmental cycle in domestic groups - Goody, Jack 1958

          Book  Introduction by Meyer Fortes

      4. Additional Readings 12 items
        1. Things fall apart - Achebe, Chinua 2006 (electronic book)

          Book 

        2. Mambu: a Melanesian millennium - Burridge, Kenelm 1960

          Book 

        3. How to read ethnography - Paloma Gay y Blasco, Huon Wardle 2007

          Book  Read: Chapter 8 (‘Big Conversations’)

        4. Time and Theory in Social Anthropology - Ernest Gellner Apr., 1958

          Article  (or The Concept of Kinship, chapter 6)

        5. The foundations of social anthropology - Nadel, Siegfried Frederick 1951

          Book  (ch. VI, ‘Institutions’)

        6. Should Anthropologists be Historians? - I. Schapera Dec., 1962

          Article 

    5. ETHNOGRAPHIC FILM 1 item
      1. The Tribe. Channel 4 'fly on the wall' documentary about a Hamar family.

  5. TOPIC 3: HUMAN UNIVERSALS RECONSIDERED – STRUCTURALISM AND THE INTELLECTUALIST TURN 22 items
    1. Lecture topics:

      1. Levi-Strauss and key themes of Tristes Tropiques

      2. Structure as locally observable, structure as a cognitive universal

      3. Further applications of the 'structure' idea in Douglas and Leach

    2. The period in the development of social anthropology from the late 50s onwards is closely associated with a renewed interest in human universals. In this climate, the Structuralisme protagonised by Claude Levi-Strauss (as distinct from British Structural Functionalism) gained ascendency. Structuralism became an intellectualist movement focused on how the human mind supplies the bases of socio-cultural commonality and difference. Levi-Strauss' work was championed (sometimes equivocally) by Edmund Leach in British circles. The work of Mary Douglas, Gregory Bateson, Victor Turner and Robin Horton take similarly universalizing stances but with different emphases. In the United States, work on universals of colour perception, inter alia, correspond to the expanded scope for a scientific anthropology in this period. These lectures will focus on two debatably 'universal' properties of human thought and sociality – reciprocity (exchange/The Gift) and taboo. This part of the discussion requires us to review the different pathways anthropology had taken up to now in its three main strongholds – Britain, France and the United States.

    3. Structuralism 7 items
      Lévi-Straussian structuralism describes a move toward a significantly more abstract idea of culture. Lévi-Strauss argued that culture is essentially a cognitive phenomenon. Rather than the British emphasis on fieldwork in small-­‐scale societies and the empirical study and modelling of social practices, the aim of structuralist inquiry is to explore universal tendencies of the human mind to generate culture. Lévi-Strauss looked first at kinship structures then at mythology to find clues about these universal potentials of the human mind.
      1. Lévi-Strauss - Leach, Edmund Ronald, Laidlaw, James 1996

        Book 

      2. Structural anthropology - Claude Lévi-Strauss, Claire Jacobson (trans.), Brooke Grundfest Schoepf (trans.) 1995

        Book  Several other editions also available in the Library around classmark GN362.L49F.

      3. Tristes tropiques - Claude Lévi-Strauss, John Weightman (trans.), Doreen Weightman (trans.) 1997

        Book 

      4. Social laws, an outline of sociology - G. Tarde 1899

        Book  Chapter II ('The Opposition of Phenomena')

    4. Gift, Reciprocity, Exchange 7 items
      1. The world of the anthropologist - Marc Augé, Jean Paul Colleyn 2006

        Book  ‘Economy, Environment, Ecology’ pages 36-­‐45

      2. The social life of money - Nigel Dodd 2014

        Book  Esp. pages 30-34

      3. Introduction to the work of Marcel Mauss - Claude Lévi-Strauss 1987

        Book  Especially III

    5. Taboo; Boundary-­creation and Liminality (In-­betweenness) 5 items
      1. Purity and danger: an analysis of the concepts of pollution and taboo - Mary Douglas 1991

        Book  Esp. Introduction & Chapter 1

      2. Taboo - Franz B. Steiner 2013

        Book 

    6. Workshop 1 item
      1. The words 'structure' and 'structuralism' strike fear into the heart of even the most hardy anthropology student. This session will act as a recap session. What is a structure? How are social structures formed? what is function? what is the difference between British Structure and French Structuralism?

  6.  

    SECTION TWO: Meaning and Rationality of Social Life (Weeks 4 & 5) - Professor Roy Dilley

  7. MAKING SENSE OF RITUAL: FROM FUNCTION TO MEANING 15 items
    The series of lectures in Week 4 will outline a selection of developments in anthropological thought that took the discipline beyond the functionalist paradigm of the 1930s and 1940s. We start off by looking at the classic issue of rites of passage, but instead of regarding them as mechanisms for the management of the transition of persons from one social status to another, they are now viewed as sites for the negotiation of conflict, dissent and rebellion. The idea of the primary human experience of those undergoing ritual transformation is also examined. By contrast, structuralist approaches to ritual are presented next, and these attempt to locate an underlying cultural logic that is the basis for their social organisation. This perspective is, however, critically examined in the final lecture, in which the problem of native knowledge and understanding of ritual activity is raised. This approach is contrasted with those views that seek a logic in social organisation which links ritual symbols and action into an overarching conceptual structure.
    1. For a general discussion of issues raised in this two­‐week course of lectures, see:

    2. In addition, two useful collections of articles and chapters on relevant themes are:

    3. Lecture 1: Rites of Passage: Beyond Functionalism 4 items
      1. The rites of passage - Arnold van Gennep 1977

        Book 

    4. Lecture 2: Structuralist Approaches to Ritual 3 items
      1. Structural anthropology - Claude Lévi-Strauss, Claire Jacobson (trans.), Brooke Grundfest Schoepf (trans.) 1995

        Book  Several other editions also available in the Library around classmark GN362.L49F.

    5. Lecture 3: Local Knowledge and the Performance of Ritual 3 items
      1. Ritual theory, ritual practice - Bell, Catherine M. 1992

        Book  Especially chapter 2

  8. THE RATIONALITY OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT: INTELLECTUALIST, CONTEXTUALIST AND SYMBOLIST APPROACHES 14 items
    The lectures in Week 5 examine the problem of how anthropologists deal with religious thought in other societies. Expressions of such religious thought are manifested in types of social activity or in statements made by local actors, the meaning or sense of which is not obviously apparent to the outside observer. These lectures investigate the ways in which anthropologists have sought to give sense to religious thought and practice. How can they be seen to intelligible, or even rational? Varying views on such questions give rise to a debate amongst anthropologists about the extent to which religious thought could be seen to be akin to our own conceptions of science on the one hand, or of art, poetry and literature on the other. Three different approaches to this debate will be outlined over the course of the week's lectures.
    1. Lecture 4: The Intellectualist Approach 5 items
      1. Religion in Primitive Culture - E.B. Tyler 1871

        Chapter 

      2. Symbol and theory: a philosophical study of theories of religion in social anthropology - Skorupski, John 1976

        Book  Skorupski discusses this and other approaches from a philosopher's viewpoint.

    2. Lecture 5: The Contextualist Approach 4 items
      1. The Problem of Symbols - E. Evans-Pritchard

        Chapter  Reprinted in M. Lambek (ed.), A Reader in the Anthropology of Religion, 2002

      2. The Notion of Witchcraft Explains Unfortunate Events - E. Evans-Pritchard

        Chapter  Part 1, chapter 4 (Chp 2 in abridged edition, 1976), also reprinted in W. Lessa & E. Vogt (eds), Reader in Comparative Religion, 1979

      3. Theories of primitive religion - Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1966

        Book 

      4. Concepts and Society - E. Gellner

        Chapter 

    3. Lecture 6: The Symbolist Approach 4 items
      1. The Control of Experience: Symbolic Action - G. Lienhart

        Chapter  Chapter 7, reprinted in M. Lambek (ed.), A Reader in the Anthropology of Religion, 2002

    4. Ethnographic Film: Witchcraft Among The Azande, André Singer and John Ryle 1 item
      1. A programme in the Granada TV's series 'Disappearing World', this film examines witchcraft beliefs and oracular practice among the Azande, in an attempt to corroborate Evans-­‐Pritchard's ethnography of some 50 years earlier. The film illustrates the continued importance of witchcraft today, and gives us an intimate and personal picture of its place in the lives of a number of Zande individuals. It remains a major danger to human life, and effective means of diagnosing its effects are crucial. The various kinds of oracle used by the Azande are the means by which the causes of misfortune can be identified. One of the features of social life that has changed since Evans­-Pritchard's time is the introduction of Catholicism into the area, and this has created tensions and divisions of opinion in Zande society about the place of witchcraft beliefs in relation to the Church. Yet, older people see the young abandoning their traditional moral and cultural values, and here they come to regard the Church and witchcraft beliefs as sharing a set of common values to guide the younger generation.

  9. PLEASE NOTE:

    No Classes will take place on Week 6 – Independent Learning Week

  10. SECTION THREE: Colonialism and Postcolonialism (Weeks 7 & 8) - Professor Mark Harris 36 items
    Many scholars have commented that the birth of anthropology was associated with colonial domination. The implication is that the very objects, methods and concepts of the discipline are infused with colonial power. But does this situation continue to characterise anthropology and does it in fact accurately describe its past? What is colonialism? Do colonialists seeks to conquer not just lands but also minds, and if so how? This section will explore the significance of colonialism and postcolonialism for anthropological work. We will consider (1) the intellectual aspects of the complicity of anthropology in the culture of imperialism; (2) the relevance of colonial processes and situations for anthropologists; (3) the culture of colonialism and how it has been understood. As a whole the section will show how anthropologists have addressed the economic, social and cultural inequalities of the world in the lives of others and in their own work. We also ask what are the ethical responsibilities of anthropologists, which was a question that gained much momentum in the late 1960s.
    1. Lecture 1: Anthropology And Colonialism 7 items
      How and why did anthropology have to confront colonialism? Here we will consider some basic definitions of key concepts and to the way in which anthropology tried to understood its colonial past and sought to redefine itself as a radical critique of the modern world.
      1. Anthropology and anthropologists: the modern British school - Adam Kuper 1983

        Book  (Chapter 4: Anthropology and Colonialism and Chapter 6: An end and a beginning). Available in the Library and as an e-book

      2. Power & its disguises: anthropological perspectives on politics - John Gledhill 1994

        Book  Available in the library and the 2000 edition available as an e-book.

    2. Lecture 2: Anthropology, Marxism and History 4 items
      In this lecture we will look at a broad shift in the work of anthropologists to understanding the challenges to their discipline and for the kinds of people they were studying. This is the world as found rather than the world they hoped it to be. In particular anthropologists drew on Marx’s work for concepts and a framework for understanding political inequality and economic differentiation. One of the core results of this work was to adopt a historical to understand the present.
    3. Lecture 3: Studying Colonialism: Political and Historical Case Studies of Resistance to Colonial Domination 6 items
      The strength of anthropology has lain in demonstrating the cultural consistency of the practices and ideas by which ordinary people from very different cultures live. In the process it has often given the false impression that these people live in impenetrable other realities undisturbed by history and world events. This is a travesty of the modern situation and it makes the work of anthropologists an irrelevance. Here we will look at ways people have challenged the established world of colonialism or neo-colonialism and the contribution of anthropology to understanding a world in revolt.
      1. The wretched of the earth - Frantz Fanon, (Trans.) Constance Farrington 1967

        Book  (Especially the Preface by Jean Paul Sartre (digitized)). 
 Later editions also available in the library.

      2. Struggle and survival in colonial America - David G. Sweet, Gary B. Nash 1981

        Book  See especially essay by Frederick Fausz. 1981. ‘Opechancanough: Indian resistance leader’, pp. 21‐37 (digitized) and David Sweet. 1981. ‘Francisca: Indian slave’, pp. 274‐291.) 


    4. Lecture 4: New Objects of Study: Workers and Peasants as Indigenous People and the Global System 6 items
      How can we turn around a discipline suited to understanding isolated small scale societies to comprehend a variety of people and social transformation of a radical kind? What happens to our notions of society as a functioning whole or culture as core values and meanings in such situations? How can anthropology reshape itself to understand a world where people are dying of disease, new technology is being introduced, and some are forced to work as slaves, or to sell their labour for money?
      1. Peasants - Mark Harris

        Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

    5. Lecture 5: Imperial Cultures: Orientalism and Edward Said 5 items
      Any colonial enterprise needs to control not just the lands and bodies of the colonised but also their minds. And this control is not just about directing the people being colonised but also the knowledge for those in the mother country. What is the place of those people in the world from the European point of view? Here we can talk of cultures of colonialism, such as orientalism. This is a question about representation in both a literary and political sense. How to represent the other and what forms are used?
      1. Orientalism - Edward W. Said 2003

        Book  Older editions also available in the library.

      2. East of Said - Richard G. Fox

        Chapter 

      3. Provincializing Europe: postcolonial thought and historical difference - Dipesh Chakrabarty 2000

        Book  Available in the library and as an e-book.

    6. Lecture 6: Colonising the Imaginary and the Mestizo Mind 5 items
      Finally we will look at the religious aspects of the process of colonial expansion and how a postcolonial analysis would approach these topics. Colonial empires also sought to conquer the imagination of indigenous peoples. The political and religious were strongly bound up with each other for religious observation kept empires together.
      1. The virgin of Gaudalope: A Mexican National symbol - Eric Wolf

        Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      2. The mestizo mind: the intellectual dynamics of colonization and globalization - Serge Gruzinski, (Trans.) Deke Dusinberre 2002

        Book  Read Chapter 4: Westernisation

      3. Of Revelation and Revolution - Jean Comaroff, John Comaroff

        Chapter 

    7. Workshop 3 items
      In this workshop we will consider the questions raised in the lectures as a way to review and recap the material presented. Has anthropology been able to move beyond its colonial heritage? Does studying non-traditional subjects make any difference? How can anthropologists act ethically and responsibly? Should they be bothered about doing so?
      1. If you would like to read further on these topics you could look at: 

      2. Anthropology and Politics: Commitment, Responsibility and the Academy - John Gledhill

        Chapter  Also available in 'Power and its disguises : anthropological perspectives on politics' by Gledhill.pp.214-242 (see link to e-book)

  11. SECTION FOUR: Anthropology's Reflexive Turn (Weeks 9 & 10) - Dr Raluca Roman 60 items
    This section explores developments in anthropology and ethnographic writing towards the end of twentieth century. It begins by examining the contribution of feminist anthropology to the discipline. Then the course examines what is known as the ‘reflexive turn’, the increasing attention paid since the 1980s to the mediating role of text, which includes a new awareness of the responsibilities of anthropologists as text-­producers. These debates centre round issues of representation. How does language structure description? Which voices and what aspects of the fieldwork experience are typically left out of ethnography? Attention focuses here as much on the culture of anthropology as on the societies anthropologists describe. One of the important outcomes of this disciplinary reflection is a whole range of new styles of ethnographic writing, all of which aim to better capture the nature of social and cultural realities.
    1. Lecture 1: Feminist Anthropology - Lost Voices 6 items
      In the 1970s feminist anthropology began to consider why it was that women were marginalized in most ethnographic accounts. Much of these early debates centred round issues of power and control over female labour. In response, some anthropologists consciously strove to provide space for female subjects’ voices and biographies in their ethnographies; we explore some examples.
      1. Woman, culture, and society - Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo, Louise Lamphere 1974

        Book  Especially the introduction.

      2. Nisa: the life and words of a !Kung woman - Marjorie Shostak, Nisa 1982

        Book  [Especially Introduction & chp 4 (book on short loan)]

    2. Lecture 2: Feminist Anthropology - Nature and Culture 8 items
      Here we examine the move within feminist anthropology away from straightforward recovering of the position of women in cultures and towards broader critique of anthropological knowledge practice. In particular, attention falls on a series of dualities or oppositions: Nature/Culture, Individual/Society, through which categories such as ‘male’ and ‘female’ are typically understood and constrained. Cultures and societies are revealed to not necessarily share these dominant gendered assumptions.
      1. Feminism and anthropology - Henrietta L. Moore 1988

        Book  Especially chapters 1-2. Available in the library and as an e-book.

      2. Space, text and gender: an anthropological study of the Marakwet of Kenya - Henrietta L. Moore 1986

        Book  Especially chapters 1, 4 and 9.

    3. Lecture 3: Feminist Anthropology - Third Sex and Beyond 9 items
      Here we discuss the development of performance theories of gender and in particular the rise of challenges to the male/female positioning of sexuality in anthropological studies. Ideas such as ‘third sex’ are explored in conjunction with illustrative ethnographic accounts. After the emergence of women as fully developed ethnographic subjects, we now get studies of gay, lesbian and transsexual subjectivities.
      1. Third sex, third gender: beyond sexual dimorphism in culture and history - Gilbert H Herdt 1993

        Book  Especially the introduction and chapters 5 and 10.

      2. Travesti: sex, gender, and culture among Brazilian transgendered prostitutes - Don Kulick 1998

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book. Especially the introduction and chapters 2 and 5.

      3. The gay archipelago: sexuality and nation in Indonesia - Tom Boellstorff 2005

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book. Especially chapters 1, 4 and 8.

      4. Urban amazons: lesbian feminism and beyond in the gender, sexuality, and identity battles of London - Sarah F. Green 1997

        Book  Especially the introduction and chapters 1 and 6.

      5. The Politics of Reproduction - Faye Ginsburg and Rayna Rapp 1991

        Article 

    4. Lecture 4 - Workshop 1 item
      1. In this workshop, we will reflect together on the contributions that feminist anthropology can bring not only to the discipline of anthropology but, more broadly, to our everyday understanding of social life and social relations.  [Please see module handbook for full details.]

    5. Lecture 5: Affective Anthropology. Emotions and Anthropological Writing 14 items
      Looking at some of the key texts in the exploration of loss, grief and death this lecture explores, firstly, the extent to which emotions shape anthropologists’ understanding of the worlds they study. Secondly, the lecture will focus on the ways in which emerging styles of ethnographic writing aim to arise emotional responses from their readers, thus binding anthropologists and their audience into an affective connection. Key questions we will explore are: How do emotions shift anthropologists’ engagement with their informants? How do emotions produce anthropological knowledge and how do anthropologists write about them? Ultimately, should we consider emotions as central in the ways in which we understand and represent the worlds of ‘selves’ and ‘others’?
      1. Required readings:

      2. The Anthropology of Emotions - Catherine Lutz, Geoffrey M. White 1986

        Article 

      3. The day of Shelly's death: the poetry and ethnography of Grief - Renato Rosaldo, Dawson Books 2014 (electronic book)

        Book  Read, ‘Grief and a headhunter’s rage’ and ‘Notes on poetry and ethnography’

      4. Supplementary readings:

      5. The girl in the cast - Ruth Behar

        Chapter 

      6. The affective turn: theorizing the social - Patricia Ticineto Clough, Jean Halley 2007

        Book 

      7. Introduction - Catherine Lutz, Lila Abu-Lughod

        Chapter 

      8. The Anthropology of Emotions - Catherine Lutz, Geoffrey M. White 1986

        Article 

    6. Lecture 6: Cross-Cultural Affect? 12 items
      In this lecture, we will consider whether emotions can or should be compared cross-culturally. We will look at specific ethnographic studies and explore several connected questions: can love can be translated across cultures? How is anger expressed and manifested throughout diverse communities? What is the relationship between emotions and particular ideas of personhood?
      1. Required readings:

      2. Translating Love - Christine Dureau 2012

        Article 

      3. Suggested readings:

      4. The cultural politics of emotion - Sara Ahmed 2004

        Book  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      5. Modern love: poetry, companionate marriage, and recrafting of the self - Zuzanna Olszewska

        Chapter  In 'The Pearl of Dari: poetry and personhood among young Afghans in Iran'

      6. Culture theory: essays on mind, self and emotion - Richard A. Shweder, Robert A. LeVine 1984

        Book 

      7. Ordinary affects - Kathleen Stewart 2007

        Book 

      8. Language and emotion - James MacLynn Wilce 2009

        Book 

    7. Lecture 7: Senses and Sensing in Anthropology 9 items
      This final lecture looks at the role of senses in the anthropological representation of the world. How can we engage the senses in anthropological fieldwork? How do senses shape the ways in which we represent cultures? To what extent can senses be a way of knowing the world? To what extent can we assume to understand the sensorial experiences of those around us?
      1. Required readings:

      2. Recommended readings:

      3. Aroma: the cultural history of smell - Constance Classen, David Howes, Anthony Synnott 1994

        Book 

      4. Sensual relations: engaging the senses in culture and social theory - David Howes 2003

        Book  Available in the library and as an e-book.

    8. Film: Sweetgrass (2009, dir. Lucien Castaing-Taylor, Ilisa Barbash) 1 item
      1. This project is one of Harvard's Sensory Lab's main film productions. With no narration or score, Sweetgrass is an observational documentary that engages its audience sensorially, through an exploration of shepherds' tracks through Montana as they take their flocks on the long trek to the Beartooth Mountains. It is, at the same time, an absorbing ethnographic portrayal of shepherds' lives, encouraging reflection and an immersion into humans' engagement with animals and their environments.

  12. SECTION FIVE: Anthropology and Cosmopolitics in a Runaway World (Week 11) - Dr.Huon Wardle 25 items
    This section explores recent developments in anthropology that have turned, if not returned, attention to some fundamental questions about human social life. These include a new awareness of the presence of ‘magic’, ‘mana’, ‘taboo’ and ‘fetishism’ or ‘animism’ in contemporary Western settings. ‘Cosmopolitics’ sums up how while as humans we all live increasingly interconnected lives in what we take to be the same world, what is most striking contemporaneously is the clash of our cosmologies not our common humanity. We will start by looking at debates about human-nonhuman relations where nonhumans include machines and virtual beings, plant life and animals. For some these turns toward decentring the ‘human’ and seeing the human as merely one aspect of the social are positive. For others these arguments subtract from the anthropological inquiry into what it means to be human. Many of the current debates were pre-figured in the 1960s by anthropologists who saw social and ecological processes as running out of control.
    1. TOPIC 1: THE RETURN OF ANIMISM – NON-HUMAN VOICES IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL LIFE 11 items
      The clash of cosmologies in contemporary life seems to be not just a clash of symbols but of different kinds of ‘agent’. Bruno Latour has been in the vanguard of anthropologists reminding us that we humans do not live alone – we co-dwell with many different kinds of ‘agent’ and ‘actant’ who contribute to the making of our cosmologies and ecologies. Consider for a moment how we persistently refer to our mobile phone etc. as an ‘it’ that ‘does’ X – ‘It has put this new App on my homescreen…’ In an Actor Network perspective our social world includes humans who are ‘plugged into’ networks that include many different ‘non-humans’. This lays down a challenge to humanists and scientists to come up with new ways of describing human lives and human moralities.
      1. Readings:

      2. Aramis, or, the love of technology - Bruno Latour, (Trans.) Catherine Porter 1996

        Book 

      3. Ch. 4: A Life of Metal - Jane Bennet

        Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      4. The Mindset lists of American history: from typewriters to text messages, what ten generations of Americans think is normal - Tom McBride, Ron Nief 2011

        Book  (Esp. ‘They Have Never Dialled a Telephone… etc.")

    2. TOPIC 2 – MAGIC, MANA AND MORALITY IN CONTEMPORARY CAPITALIST ECONOMIES 8 items
      Corporations are now some of the largest social actors on the global social scene: more powerful in economic terms than many nation states. This brings the concept of ‘corporate social responsibility (CSR)’ to the fore. To what extent is this a ‘corporate oxymoron’? To whom are corporations responsible? Many contemporary commentators have noted that the relationship between the economy, the power of corporations, of bankers and ratings agencies has more in common with astrology and magic than with the tenets of ‘rational actor theory’. Here we look at what we might see as a resurgence of a Frazerian view of society.
      1. Readings:

      2. The social life of money - Nigel Dodd 2014

        Book  (Esp. pages 30-34) 2016 edition also available at classmark: HG221.D73G16

      3. Corporate oxymorons - Peter Benson, Stuart Kirsch 2010

        Article 

    3. FILM: THE BIG SHORT 0 items
      The Big Short is a fictionalised exposé of the events leading up to the financial crash of 2007-8. The movie is based on Michael Lewis's non-fiction book, The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine. [Please see module handbook for further details.]
    4. Workshop 1: The Clash of Cosmologies in Contemporary World Society 2 items
      1. Cosmopolitics: the collected papers of the open anthropology cooperative, volume 1 2017

        Book  (Read the foreword by Keith Hart and explore some of the other papers selectively) Available in the library and as an online resource.

    5. Workshop 2: Magic, Mana, Morality and ‘Late Capitalism’ 2 items
      We discuss applications of anthropological themes such as magic, mana and taboo to contemporary social life. De Waal Malefyt like Malinowski, argues that magic ‘fills a void’ in our understanding of society. How might we read mana and magic as still crucial to the conduct of social life?
      1. The social life of money - Nigel Dodd 2014

        Book  (Esp. pages 30-34) 2016 edition also available at classmark: HG221.D73G16

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