1. Key Module Readings 3 items
    1. History and theory in anthropology - Alan Barnard 2000

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book

    2. How to read ethnography - Paloma Gay y Blasco, Huon Wardle 2007

      Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book


    SECTION 1: The Emergence of Scientific Anthropology (Weeks 1 & 2) - Dr Huon Wardle

    1. Lecture topics for this week:

      1. Social Evolutionism, diffusionism and Functionalism.

      2. Totem, taboo, mana and Nineteenth Century models of 'savage' and 'civilised'

      3. Rivers, Malinowski and the development of 'ethnography' and 'the field'

    2. Evolutionary notions of the ‘primitive’ – magic and sacrifice, totem, taboo, mana 10 items
      We examine the origin of the concept of ‘primitive society’ in the nineteenth century. This includes the concern for the origin of religion, evolutionist thinking and the ranking of societies from ‘magical’ and ‘animistic’ peoples to the ‘modern’ and ‘scientific’ ones the anthropologists imagined themselves to belong to. While Lewis Henry Morgan provides one of the first analytical ethnographies of a society with his study The League of the Iroquois, his further work argues that there is a staged progress from matriarchal hordes to modern individualist states. Four Scottish anthropologists – Mclennan, Robertson-Smith, Lang and Frazer played a key role in laying the foundations of social anthropological thought with their voluminous ‘armchair’ researches: this work has been widely criticized but certain of its themes continue to provoke debate right up to the present.
      1. Primitive classification - Emile Durkheim, Marcel Mauss 1963 [1903]


    3. On the emergence of ‘ethnography’ and ‘the field’: the world from the local point of view 7 items
      We examine the development of ethnographic research by participant observation. Knowledge based on fieldwork, aimed at showing what Malinowski called the ‘native’s point of view’, changed how so-called ‘primitive’ societies were perceived. The goal became one of understanding concepts in context and giving them analytical status in ethnographic writing.
      1. Baloma - Bronislaw Malinowski


      2. Malinowski - Adam Kuper


      3. Miller, Jonathan. 1970. "The Dog Beneath the Skin", The Listener, July 20

    4. Further reading 9 items
      1. Douglas, Mary. 1979. "Taboo" in R. Cavendish (ed.) Man, Myth and Magic.

      2. Race and History - Claude Lévi-Strauss


      3. No nature, no culture - M. Srathern


      4. The invention of culture - Roy Wagner 1981

        Book  Read: "Chapter 1: The assumption of culture"


      We review questions raised by Nineteenth Century anthropology and the emergence of the fieldwork approach.

    1. Lecture topics for this week:

      1. (e.g.) Baloma: Social categories versus social processes: what people say and what they do are not the same.

      2.(e.g.) Kula: Exchange as a fundamental aspect of society.

    2. On the idea of ‘function’ and the Malinowski school 11 items
      At its simplest, functionalism describes a question addressed to particular ideas and behaviours; 'socially speaking, what use are these practices for these people?' The first lectures for this part of the course deal with the emergence and refinement of the ideas of structure and function in social anthropology from the 1930s to the mid-1950s. We look initially at some of the classic functionalist ethnographies of the 1930s. These texts demonstrate a focus on small-scale (often island-based) societies and a common aim of showing how social roles, rights, responsibilities, institutions and behaviours are coordinated and respond functionally to basic human needs. The emphasis in these functionalist works is on methodological induction – collecting as large a quantity of observations as possible in order to arrive at generalisations. Functionalism as a movement is closely connected to the seminars run by Malinowski at the LSE during the 1930s. Gellner has distinguished function as the method of collecting data with a view to the social usefulness criterion, from function as a doctrine (the principle that everything in a society has a 'purpose' within the whole). He argues that the latter assumption is suspect, while the former idea has enduring value.
      1. The reaction against social evolutionism and diffusionism 3 items
        As an approach, functionalism is in part a reaction against the historical speculation characteristic of evolutionist and diffusionist writing. E.g. --
        1. Mana Again - A. M. Hocart 1922


        2. A general theory of magic - Marcel Mauss 2001

          Book  Especially Ch. 4(3) on ‘Mana’.

      2. Malinowski School Ethnographies 8 items
        1. Anthropology and anthropologists: the modern British school - Kuper, Adam 1996

          Book  Read: Chapter 3 (‘The 1930s and 1940s’)

        2. Peasant life in China: a field study of country life in the Yangtze valley - Hsiao-t`ung Fei 1980

          Book  Downloadable via (download options on right of page, e.g. TIFF file)

        3. We, the Tikopia: a sociological study of kinship in primitive Polynesia - Firth, Raymond, Malinowski, Bronislaw 1983

          Book  (Esp. Chapter VI)

    3. On the idea of ‘social structure’ 17 items
      Structural functionalism analyses society as a system of interrelating parts asking the question ‘what is the function of X practice in relation to the overall social structure?’ The approach, drawing inspiration from Radcliffe-Brown, comes to the fore in the 1940s, as a more abstract anthropology also emerges. Radcliffe-Brown had placed weight on a view of society as akin to an articulated social organism (an idea of Herbert Spencer’s). The emphasis in structural functionalist texts is more analytical and deductive –models and holistic social logics are applied to a body of observations. Evans-Pritchard’s The Nuer represents a high point of this development.
      1. Social Structure 7 items
        1. Structure and function in primitive society: essays and addresses - A. R. Radcliffe-Brown 1979

          Book  Introduction and chapter 1. Additional copies available at classmark GN490.R2F65.

        2. Anthropology: The Basics - Peter Metcalf 2005

          Book  Chapters 3 and 4

        3. Witch Beliefs and Social Structure - Monica Hunter Wilson 1951

          Article  (Or chapter 22 in Marwick M. (ed) Witchcraft and Sorcery)

        4. African political systems - Meyer Fortes, E. E. Evans-Pritchard 1987

          Book  Additional copies available at classmarks JQ1879.A15F7P8F66 and JQ1879.A15F7P8.

        5. Conformity and Conflict - James P. Spradley, David W. McCurdy 1980, 1987

          Book  Read: ‘Primitive Kinship’

      2. Additional Readings 10 items
        1. How to read ethnography - Paloma Gay y Blasco, Huon Wardle 2007

          Book  Read: Chapter 3 (‘Relationships and Meanings’)

        2. The concept of kinship: and other essays on anthropological method and explanation - Gellner, Ernest 1987

          Book  Chapter 7 (‘Sociology and Social Anthropology’)

        3. Anthropology and the crisis of the intellectuals - Grimshaw, Anna, Hart, Keith 1996


        4. Dream of the red chamber - Cao, Xueqin, Gao, E., Wang, Chi-Chen 1983


        5. The essential Edmund Leach - Leach, Edmund Ronald, Laidlaw, James, Hugh-Jones, Stephen c2000

          Book  Vol. 1, chapter 1.8 (‘Social Anthropology: A Natural Science of Society?’)

        6. Social anthropology - Lienhardt, Godfrey 1966

          Book  Chapter 5 (‘Kinship and Affinity’).

        7. Anthropology: The Basics - Peter Metcalf 2005

          Book  Chapters 3 and 4.

        8. On growth and form - D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson 1994, c1961


    4. Time and process in ethnographic accounts 20 items
      Lecture themes: (1) The time factor; (2) Radical change; (3) Cyclical and processual change; (4) Enduring legacies
      1. Lecture topics:

        1. Time – Ecological, Structural and Processual

        2. Time – Political, Transformational and Ideological

        3. Time – Developmental, Cyclical, Personal

      2. While anthropology came to be defined by its fieldwork-based, holistic, synchronic emphases during 1930-1955, criticisms of the functionalist approach appear quite early; from, amongst others, Gregory Bateson whose early affiliations were to Rivers and Haddon in Cambridge. Anthropologists such as Gluckman and Barth began to build situational and individualistic diversity into their accounts that challenged the 'social organic' view of Radcliffe-Brown. Firth's work on 'social organisation' also critiques the rigidity of social structure as explanation. Edmund Leach's Political Systems of Highland Burma is a key moment in this revision of structural functionalist orthodoxy, marking the opening up, from the 1960s onwards, of a more intellectualist, less empirically focused movement – structuralism.

      3. Time, Change and History in Anthropology 6 items
        1. Political systems of Highland Burma: a study of Kachin social structure - Edmund Ronald Leach, Raymond Firth 1970

          Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

        2. Oedipus and Job in West African religion - Fortes, Meyer, Horton, Robin 1983


        3. The developmental cycle in domestic groups - Goody, Jack 1958

          Book  Introduction by Meyer Fortes

      4. Additional Readings 12 items
        1. Things fall apart - Achebe, Chinua 2006 (electronic book)


        2. Mambu: a Melanesian millennium - Burridge, Kenelm 1960


        3. How to read ethnography - Paloma Gay y Blasco, Huon Wardle 2007

          Book  Read: Chapter 8 (‘Big Conversations’)

        4. Time and Theory in Social Anthropology - Ernest Gellner Apr., 1958

          Article  (or The Concept of Kinship, chapter 6)

        5. The foundations of social anthropology - Nadel, Siegfried Frederick 1951

          Book  (ch. VI, ‘Institutions’)

        6. Should Anthropologists be Historians? - I. Schapera Dec., 1962


      1. The Tribe. Channel 4 'fly on the wall' documentary about a Hamar family.

    1. Lecture topics:

      1. Levi-Strauss and key themes of Tristes Tropiques

      2. Structure as locally observable, structure as a cognitive universal

      3. Further applications of the 'structure' idea in Douglas and Leach

    2. The period in the development of social anthropology from the late 50s onwards is closely associated with a renewed interest in human universals. In this climate, the Structuralisme protagonised by Claude Levi-Strauss (as distinct from British Structural Functionalism) gained ascendency. Structuralism became an intellectualist movement focused on how the human mind supplies the bases of socio-cultural commonality and difference. Levi-Strauss' work was championed (sometimes equivocally) by Edmund Leach in British circles. The work of Mary Douglas, Gregory Bateson, Victor Turner and Robin Horton take similarly universalizing stances but with different emphases. In the United States, work on universals of colour perception, inter alia, correspond to the expanded scope for a scientific anthropology in this period. These lectures will focus on two debatably 'universal' properties of human thought and sociality – reciprocity (exchange/The Gift) and taboo. This part of the discussion requires us to review the different pathways anthropology had taken up to now in its three main strongholds – Britain, France and the United States.

    3. Structuralism 7 items
      Lévi-Straussian structuralism describes a move toward a significantly more abstract idea of culture. Lévi-Strauss argued that culture is essentially a cognitive phenomenon. Rather than the British emphasis on fieldwork in small-­‐scale societies and the empirical study and modelling of social practices, the aim of structuralist inquiry is to explore universal tendencies of the human mind to generate culture. Lévi-Strauss looked first at kinship structures then at mythology to find clues about these universal potentials of the human mind.
      1. Lévi-Strauss - Leach, Edmund Ronald, Laidlaw, James 1996


      2. Structural anthropology - Claude Lévi-Strauss, Claire Jacobson (trans.), Brooke Grundfest Schoepf (trans.) 1995

        Book  Several other editions also available in the Library around classmark GN362.L49F.

      3. Tristes tropiques - Claude Lévi-Strauss, John Weightman (trans.), Doreen Weightman (trans.) 1997


      4. Social laws, an outline of sociology - G. Tarde 1899

        Book  Chapter II ('The Opposition of Phenomena')

    4. Gift, Reciprocity, Exchange 7 items
      1. The world of the anthropologist - Marc Augé, Jean Paul Colleyn 2006

        Book  ‘Economy, Environment, Ecology’ pages 36-­‐45

      2. The social life of money - Nigel Dodd 2014

        Book  Esp. pages 30-34

      3. Introduction to the work of Marcel Mauss - Claude Lévi-Strauss 1987

        Book  Especially III

    5. Taboo; Boundary-­creation and Liminality (In-­betweenness) 5 items
      1. Purity and danger: an analysis of the concepts of pollution and taboo - Mary Douglas 1991

        Book  Esp. Introduction & Chapter 1

      2. Taboo - Franz B. Steiner 2013


    6. Workshop 1 item
      1. The words 'structure' and 'structuralism' strike fear into the heart of even the most hardy anthropology student. This session will act as a recap session. What is a structure? How are social structures formed? what is function? what is the difference between British Structure and French Structuralism?


    SECTION TWO: Meaning and Rationality of Social Life (Weeks 4 & 5) - Professor Roy Dilley

    The series of lectures in Week 4 will outline a selection of developments in anthropological thought that took the discipline beyond the functionalist paradigm of the 1930s and 1940s. We start off by looking at the classic issue of rites of passage, but instead of regarding them as mechanisms for the management of the transition of persons from one social status to another, they are now viewed as sites for the negotiation of conflict, dissent and rebellion. The idea of the primary human experience of those undergoing ritual transformation is also examined. By contrast, structuralist approaches to ritual are presented next, and these attempt to locate an underlying cultural logic that is the basis for their social organisation. This perspective is, however, critically examined in the final lecture, in which the problem of native knowledge and understanding of ritual activity is raised. This approach is contrasted with those views that seek a logic in social organisation which links ritual symbols and action into an overarching conceptual structure.
    1. For a general discussion of issues raised in this two­‐week course of lectures, see:

    2. In addition, two useful collections of articles and chapters on relevant themes are:

    3. Lecture 1: Rites of Passage: Beyond Functionalism 4 items
      1. The rites of passage - Arnold van Gennep 1977


    4. Lecture 2: Structuralist Approaches to Ritual 3 items
      1. Structural anthropology - Claude Lévi-Strauss, Claire Jacobson (trans.), Brooke Grundfest Schoepf (trans.) 1995

        Book  Several other editions also available in the Library around classmark GN362.L49F.

    5. Lecture 3: Local Knowledge and the Performance of Ritual 3 items
      1. Ritual theory, ritual practice - Bell, Catherine M. 1992

        Book  Especially chapter 2

    The lectures in Week 5 examine the problem of how anthropologists deal with religious thought in other societies. Expressions of such religious thought are manifested in types of social activity or in statements made by local actors, the meaning or sense of which is not obviously apparent to the outside observer. These lectures investigate the ways in which anthropologists have sought to give sense to religious thought and practice. How can they be seen to intelligible, or even rational? Varying views on such questions give rise to a debate amongst anthropologists about the extent to which religious thought could be seen to be akin to our own conceptions of science on the one hand, or of art, poetry and literature on the other. Three different approaches to this debate will be outlined over the course of the week's lectures.
    1. Lecture 4: The Intellectualist Approach 5 items
      1. Religion in Primitive Culture - E.B. Tyler 1871


      2. Symbol and theory: a philosophical study of theories of religion in social anthropology - Skorupski, John 1976

        Book  Skorupski discusses this and other approaches from a philosopher's viewpoint.

    2. Lecture 5: The Contextualist Approach 4 items
      1. The Problem of Symbols - E. Evans-Pritchard

        Chapter  Reprinted in M. Lambek (ed.), A Reader in the Anthropology of Religion, 2002

      2. The Notion of Witchcraft Explains Unfortunate Events - E. Evans-Pritchard

        Chapter  Part 1, chapter 4 (Chp 2 in abridged edition, 1976), also reprinted in W. Lessa & E. Vogt (eds), Reader in Comparative Religion, 1979

      3. Theories of primitive religion - Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 1966


      4. Concepts and Society - E. Gellner


    3. Lecture 6: The Symbolist Approach 4 items
      1. The Control of Experience: Symbolic Action - G. Lienhart

        Chapter  Chapter 7, reprinted in M. Lambek (ed.), A Reader in the Anthropology of Religion, 2002

    4. Ethnographic Film: Witchcraft Among The Azande, André Singer and John Ryle 1 item
      1. A programme in the Granada TV's series 'Disappearing World', this film examines witchcraft beliefs and oracular practice among the Azande, in an attempt to corroborate Evans-­‐Pritchard's ethnography of some 50 years earlier. The film illustrates the continued importance of witchcraft today, and gives us an intimate and personal picture of its place in the lives of a number of Zande individuals. It remains a major danger to human life, and effective means of diagnosing its effects are crucial. The various kinds of oracle used by the Azande are the means by which the causes of misfortune can be identified. One of the features of social life that has changed since Evans­-Pritchard's time is the introduction of Catholicism into the area, and this has created tensions and divisions of opinion in Zande society about the place of witchcraft beliefs in relation to the Church. Yet, older people see the young abandoning their traditional moral and cultural values, and here they come to regard the Church and witchcraft beliefs as sharing a set of common values to guide the younger generation.


    No Classes will take place on Week 6 – Independent Learning Week

  10. SECTION THREE: Colonialism and Postcolonialism (Weeks 7 & 8) - Professor Mark Harris 1 item
    1. Readings to be added

  11. SECTION FOUR: Anthropology's Reflexive Turn (Weeks 9 & 10) - Dr Raluca Roman 24 items
    This section explores developments in anthropology and ethnographic writing towards the end of twentieth century. It begins by examining the contribution of feminist anthropology to the discipline. Then the course examines what is known as the ‘reflexive turn’, the increasing attention paid since the 1980s to the mediating role of text, which includes a new awareness of the responsibilities of anthropologists as text-­producers. These debates centre round issues of representation. How does language structure description? Which voices and what aspects of the fieldwork experience are typically left out of ethnography? Attention focuses here as much on the culture of anthropology as on the societies anthropologists describe. One of the important outcomes of this disciplinary reflection is a whole range of new styles of ethnographic writing, all of which aim to better capture the nature of social and cultural realities.
    1. Lecture 1: Feminist Anthropology - Lost Voices 6 items
      In the 1970s feminist anthropology began to consider why it was that women were marginalized in most ethnographic accounts. Much of these early debates centred round issues of power and control over female labour. In response, some anthropologists consciously strove to provide space for female subjects’ voices and biographies in their ethnographies; we explore some examples.
      1. Woman, culture, and society - Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo, Louise Lamphere 1974

        Book  Especially the introduction.

      2. Nisa: the life and words of a !Kung woman - Marjorie Shostak, Nisa 1982


    2. Lecture 2: Feminist Anthropology - Nature and Culture 8 items
      Here we examine the move within feminist anthropology away from straightforward recovering of the position of women in cultures and towards broader critique of anthropological knowledge practice. In particular, attention falls on a series of dualities or oppositions: Nature/Culture, Individual/Society, through which categories such as ‘male’ and ‘female’ are typically understood and constrained. Cultures and societies are revealed to not necessarily share these dominant gendered assumptions.
      1. Feminism and anthropology - Henrietta L. Moore 1988

        Book  Especially chapters 1-2.

      2. Space, text and gender: an anthropological study of the Marakwet of Kenya - Henrietta L. Moore 1986

        Book  Especially chapters 1, 4 and 9.

    3. Lecture 3: Feminist Anthropology - Third Sex and Beyond 9 items
      Here we discuss the development of performance theories of gender and in particular the rise of challenges to the male/female positioning of sexuality in anthropological studies. Ideas such as ‘third sex’ are explored in conjunction with illustrative ethnographic accounts. After the emergence of women as fully developed ethnographic subjects, we now get studies of gay, lesbian and transsexual subjectivities.
      1. Third sex, third gender: beyond sexual dimorphism in culture and history - Gilbert H Herdt 1993

        Book  Especially the introduction and chapters 5 and 10.

      2. Travesti: sex, gender, and culture among Brazilian transgendered prostitutes - Don Kulick 1998

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book. Especially the introduction and chapters 2 and 5.

      3. The gay archipelago: sexuality and nation in Indonesia - Tom Boellstorff 2005

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book. Especially chapters 1, 4 and 8.

      4. Urban amazons: lesbian feminism and beyond in the gender, sexuality, and identity battles of London - Sarah F. Green 1997

        Book  Especially the introduction and chapters 1 and 6.

      5. The Politics of Reproduction - Faye Ginsburg and Rayna Rapp 1991


    4. Lecture 4 - Workshop 1 item
      1. In this workshop we will think about the role of sex and gender in the contemporary workplace,
        especially in relation to the recent 'Athena Swan' charter for equality and diversity in Higher Education and research Students should
        explore the above website and come to class prepared to debate gender equality both in university life and in the wider context of 21st century Britain. We will divide into small groups to prepare feedback on key questions identified by the class.

  12. SECTION 5: Some Contemporary 'Turns' in Anthropology (Weeks 10 & 11) - Dr Mette High 30 items
    This section explores recent developments in anthropology that have turned, if not returned, attention to some fundamental questions about human social life. We will start by looking at debates about human-nonhuman relations where nonhumans include machines and virtual beings, plant life and animals. Known as ‘multispecies ethnography’, we will discuss what it means to be human and how we can understand and live together with our various Others. We will proceed by looking at questions of ethics as applied to those we study, whether they are humans, corporations or nonhumans. Examining the dynamics between ethics and economic life, we will consider the cultural constitution of ‘fair trade’ and ‘corporate social responsibility’ practices. The section as a whole offers a reflection on whom we include in our ethnographic analyses, highlighting the historical connections between earlier anthropological debates and future strands of anthropology.
    1. Lecture 1: Multispecies Ethnography – Cyborgs and Avatars 5 items
      In this lecture we will examine how cyborgs and avatars challenge human-centred understandings of social life. Can inorganic matter be an agent? To what extent are virtual worlds real? What kinds of roles do technoscientific inventions play in human social life?
      1. Required Reading: 2 items
      2. Supplementary Reading: 3 items
        1. A Life of Metal - Jane Bennet

          Chapter  Digitised.

        2. The Emergence of Multispecies Ethnography - Stefan E. Kirksey, Stefan Helmreich 2010


    2. Lecture 2: Multispecies Ethnography - Anthropology of Life 5 items
      In this lecture we will consider the kinds of relations and continuities that implicate humans with animal species and plant life. How can we understand their views? To what extent is peaceful conviviality a possibility? Is it time to establish a new ‘Anthropology of Life’?
      1. Required Reading: 2 items
      2. Supplementary Reading: 3 items
        1. When species meet - Donna Jeanne Haraway 2008

          Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book. Read especially chapter 1.

        2. Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory - Bruno Latour 2005

          Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book. Read especially 'Introduction: How to Resume the Task of Tracing Associations'.

    3. Lecture 3: Multispecies Ethnography - Ethics of Animal Conservation and Science 4 items
      Some anthropologists have challenged the assumption and the ethics of co-dependency between humans and non-humans in much of multispecies ethnography. Can anthropologists truly claim to represent animal positions? Is it a problematic relational configuration? And how does co-dependency intersect with economic practices such as fundraising?
      1. Required Reading: 2 items
      2. Supplementary Reading: 2 items
    4. Lecture 4: Anthropology of Ethics – Ethics of the Everyday 5 items
      Locating ethics in the ordinary and the everyday, a new body of work has called for attention to people’s multiple and often conflicting ethical sensibilities, actions and intentions. How are ethics expressed in everyday life? Is it possible for nonhumans to be ethical agents? How do we ensure that we do not conflate our own ethical assumptions with those held by our informants?
      1. Required Reading: 2 items
      2. Supplementary Reading: 3 items
        1. Life and words: violence and the descent into the ordinary - Veena Das 2007

          Book  Especially chapter 1, 'The Event and the Everyday', pp. 1-17 (digitised).

        2. Introduction in 'Ordinary ethics: anthropology, language, and action' - Michael Lambek

          Chapter  A stable chapter preview is available via Google Books.

        3. HIV is God's blessing: rehabilitating morality in neoliberal Russia - Jarrett Zigon 2011 (electronic book)

          Book  Especially the introduction, pp. 1-19.

    5. Lecture 5: Anthropology of Ethics – Fair trade 5 items
      A framework that is explicitly presented as ethical is certified fair trade. But anthropologists have started questioning how and for whom this is an ethical practice. Does fair trade benefit labourers, business owners, governments and/or consumers? Is it a particularly ‘neoliberal’ production chain? And to what extent are markets suitable for the promotion of social and economic justice?
      1. Required Reading: 2 items
      2. Supplementary Reading: 3 items
    6. Lecture 6: Anthropology of Ethics – Corporate Social Responsibility 5 items
      Another framework that explicitly promotes ethical sensibilities in the configuration of economic life is corporate social responsibility (CSR). To what extent is this a ‘corporate oxymoron’? To whom are corporations responsible? And is it a framework that does more harm than good?
      1. Required Reading: 2 items
      2. Supplementary Reading: 3 items
        1. Corporate oxymorons - Peter Benson, Stuart Kirsch 2010


        2. In good company: an anatomy of corporate social responsibility - Dinah Rajak 2011

          Book  Especially 'Introduction: Towards an Ethnography of Corporate Social Responsibility'.

    7. Ethnographic Film: The High Cost of Low Price (2005) 1 item
      1. Everyone has seen Wal-Mart's lavish television commercials, but have you ever wondered why Wal-Mart spends so much money trying to convince you it cares about your family, your community, and even its own employees?

        This documentary by Robert Greenweld takes you behind the glitz and into the lives of workers and their families, business owners and their communities, in an extraordinary journey that will
        challenge the way you think, feel... and shop. It is a film that questions the workings of capitalist enterprises and invites you to think about the potential limits to corporate and consumer responsibility.

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