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  1. Recommended Texts 2 items
    1. Almost all the compulsory reading for this module will be taken from the following reader. Although there is no e-book version, multiple copies are available on Short Loan in the Library and it can also be bought (for £12.99) at Blackwells in the Students' Union:

    2. The Portable Enlightenment reader - Isaac Kramnick 1995

      Book Suggested for student purchase

  2. Lecture and Tutorial Schedule 61 items
    Almost all readings are in Isaac Kramnick (ed.), The Portable Enlightenment Reader [PER].
    1. Week 1: Introduction to the Enlightenment (AD, JH and MW) 6 items
      1. What is Enlightenment? - Kant

        Chapter  [PER 1-7]

      2. The Human Mind Emerged from Barbarism - d'Alembert

        Chapter  [PER 7-17]

      3. Encyclopédie - Diderot

        Chapter  [PER 17-21]

      4. Definition of a Philosophe - Dumarsais

        Chapter  [PER 21-22]

      5. The Future Progress of the Human Mind - Condorcet

        Chapter  [PER 26-38]

      6. No tutorials in Week 1.

         

        Tutorial task for Week 2:

         

        On the basis of your reading, compile a list of 5 or 6 defining attributes of Enlightenment thought.

         

        Come to the tutorial prepared to discuss these questions:

         

          •  How is Enlightenment philosophy supposed to be different from the philosophy of previous ages?

          •  How does it understand itself in relation to science?

          •  How does it understand itself in relation to religion?

          •  What are its hopes for the future?

    2. Week 2: Hume and scepticism about the rationality of religious belief (AD) 8 items
      1. The Argument for a Deity - Newton

        Chapter  [PER 96-100]

      2. A complete text of Hume's Dialogues is on Short Loan:

      3. Dialogues concerning natural religion and other writings - David Hume, Dorothy Coleman (ed) 2007

        Book 

      4. For an online text, see the following:

      5. Tutorial task for week 3:

         

        Come prepared to explain the contrast between natural religion and revealed religion.

        • How are the selections from Newton an expression of Enlightenment thinking?
        • In your own words, sketch Newton's argument for the existence of God in the first selection.
        • How might Section 2 of Hume's Dialogues be seen as an attack on the kind of argument Newton gives?
        • How is Section 2 nevertheless still an expression of Enlightenment thinking?
        • How does Demea think that God's existence can be proved?
        • What, exactly, does Demea think that we can know about God?
        • How does Cleanthes think that God's existence can be proved?
        • What does he think we can know about God and how does he think we can know it?
        • How does Philo attempt to undermine Cleanthes?
        • Do you think Philo has succeeded doing so?

    3. Week 3: Toleration (JH) 8 items
      1. On Superstition and Tolerance - Bayle

        Chapter  [PER 75-81]

      2. A Letter concerning Toleration - Locke

        Chapter  [PER 81-90]

      3. Selections from 'Treatise on tolerance' - Voltaire, Brian Masters (trans), Simon Harvey (trans) 2000

        Book  Chapters 11 and 18-21.

      4. A complete text of Voltaire's Treatise is on Short Loan:

      5. Treatise on tolerance - Voltaire, Brian Masters (trans), Simon Harvey (trans) 2000

        Book 

      6. For an online text, see the following:

      7. Toleration and Other Essays - Voltaire, Joseph McCabe (trans) 1755

        Book 

      8. Tutorial task for Week 4:

         

        Write up notes briefly comparing and contrasting the cases made for religious toleration by Bayle, Locke, and Voltaire.

         

        Come to the tutorial prepared to discuss these questions:

         

        • How significant is it for understanding their views on toleration that while Bayle and Locke were committed Christians, Voltaire was not?
        • Why do Locke and Voltaire both refuse toleration to atheists?
        • Is toleration more difficult in a mainly secular society than in a mainly religious one?

    4. Week 4: Rousseau on inequality and equality [JH] 5 items
      1. The Second Treatise of Government - Locke

        Chapter  [PER 395-405]

      2. Discourse on the Origin of Inequality - Rousseau

        Chapter  [PER 424-430]

      3. Civic Education - Rousseau

        Chapter  [PER 233-235]

      4. The Social Contract - Rousseau

        Chapter  [PER 430-442]

      5. Tutorial task for Week 5:

         

        Rousseau claims that the political philosophy of his time serves only to legitimate inequality and oppression. How might this be true of Locke -- who claims, just as Rousseau does, that 'man is born free'? How, for example, does Rousseau regard Locke's claim that there is a natural right to property? What is Rousseau's account of the origins of inequality, and what is the place of inequality in that account? What is Rousseau's alternative to Locke's conception of political liberty? What role does equality play in Rousseau's theory of liberty? Does he succeed in showing that equality and liberty are mutually supportive political principles?

    5. Week 5: Smith on self-interest, markets, and the pursuit of wealth [AD] 5 items
      1. Of Luxury - Hume

        Chapter  [PER 491-496]

      2. Economic Liberty - Turgot

        Chapter  [PER 502-505]

      3. The Wealth of Nations - Smith

        Chapter  [PER 505-515]

      4. Tutorial task for Week 6:

         

        Write a paragraph outlining your view as to whether or not Smith gives us reason to be more optimistic about modern society than Rousseau was.

         

        Come to the tutorial prepared to discuss these questions:

         

        • Why should we believe, with Hume and Smith, that ambition and the pursuit of wealth are virtues, not vices?
        • Can we trust each individual's pursuit of their own good as the best means of improving society as a whole?
        • How, according to Smith, does the division of labour bring about unprecedented material wealth? Is this always a good thing?
        • What examples does Smith give of the 'invisible hand' that leads individuals to unwittingly promote the public good?
        • Is it better to rely on the 'invisible hand' than to try to convince citizens to want topromote the public good?

    6. Week 6: The relation between the sexes (AD) 6 items
      1. Duties of Women - Rousseau

        Chapter  [PER 568-79]

      2. Some Reflections upon Marriage - Astell

        Chapter  [PER 560-68]

      3. The Fair Sex - Kant

        Chapter  [PER 580-86]

      4. Women, Adored and Oppressed - Paine

        Chapter  [PER 586-90]

      5. Women's Education - Graham

        Chapter  [PER 591-601]

      6. Tutorial task for Week 7:

         

        If all men are born free, as Rousseau claims, why is it that, as Astell observes, all women are born slaves? And '…why is slavery so much condemn'd and strove against in one case, and so highly applauded and held so necessary and so sacred in another?' If, as Astell asks, women should be politically subordinate on account of their (alleged) weaker understanding, shouldn't less intelligent men then also be subordinate? Does Rousseau have plausible answers to Astell's questions? How plausible is Macaulay's alternative explanation for the typical vices Rousseau observes in women? Does Kant's theory of female virtue deprive women of agency? How could these 'enlightened' figures take such an uncritical attitude towards common gender stereotypes?

    7. Week 7: Race, slavery, and colonialism (JH) 6 items
      1. The Difference between the Races - Kant

        Chapter  [PER 637-39]

      2. On Indians and Negroes - Jefferson

        Chapter  [PER 657-68]

      3. African Slavery in America - Paine

        Chapter  [PER 645-49]

      4. Tutorial task for Week 8:

         

        Write a paragraph doing your best to explain how great philosophers like Hume and Kant, and a great statesman like Jefferson, were able to believe in the natural inferiority of 'Negroes' or 'blacks'.

         

        Come to the tutorial prepared to discuss these questions:

         

          •  How effective is Diderot's critique of colonialism?

          •  What are the principles underlying Paine's condemnation of slavery?

          •  Is a universal theory of human nature the best antidote to racism?

    8. Week 8: Liberty and democracy [MW] 4 items
      1. The Spirit of the Laws - Montesquieu

        Chapter  [PER 405-15]

      2. Common Sense - Paine

        Chapter  [PER 442-48]

      3. Federalist No. 10 - Madison

        Chapter  [PER 459-66]

      4. Tutorial task for Week 9:

         

        Briefly compare what Montesquieu has to say about the need to separate the powers in a state with Paine's criticisms of the component parts of the English constitution. What lessons can be learnt from these Enlightenment thinkers about the constitutional arrangement of a well-functioning state? To what extent are their insights still relevant to modern constitutions?

    9. Week 9: The rights of man, and of woman (MW) 5 items
      1. The Rights of Man - Paine

        Chapter  [PER 469-72]

      2. The Rights of Woman - de Gouges

        Chapter  [PER 609-18]

      3. Vindication of the Rights of Woman - Wollstonecraft

        Chapter  [PER 618-28]

      4. Tutorial task for Week 10:

         

        Select an article from the French 'Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen' that strikes you as particularly interesting. What are the legitimate concerns it expresses? To what extent was it revolutionary at the time? What are its shortcomings? Does de Gougues' list of the 'Rights of Woman' make you look at in a different light?

    10. Week 10: Cosmopolitanism (MW) 6 items
      1. Perpetual Peace - Kant

        Chapter  [PER 552-59]

      2. Complete texts of 'Idea for a Universal History' and 'Perpetual Peace' can be found in:

      3. Political Writings - Immanuel Kant, ed. Hans S. Reiss 1991

        Book 

      4. For an online text of 'Perpetual Peace' see here

      5. Tutorial task for Week 11:

         

        In a paragraph or two, briefly reflect on the question why Kant calls for an international federation of states and how it is supposed to work. 

        Also:

        What are the differences between individuals united in a state and states united in such a federation?

        What are the challenges for a Kantian federation in the world we live in today?

    11. Week 11: Interpretation and legacy [AD, JH and MW] 1 item
      1. Readings to be confirmed.

    12. Week 12: Revision Week 1 item
      1. No lectures or tutorials.

  3. Recommended Further Reading 74 items
    1. General accounts of the Enlightenment 10 items
      1. What is enlightenment? - Samuel Fleischacker 2013

        Book 

      2. The Enlightenment - Norman Hampson 1968

        Book 

      3. The Enlightenment - Dorinda Outram 2013

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    2. Useful collections of articles on the Enlightenment 4 items
      1. The Enlightenment world - Martin Fitzpatrick 2007

        Book 

      2. The Enlightenment - Ryan Patrick Hanley, Darrin M. McMahon 2010

        Book 

      3. Women, gender and Enlightenment - Barbara Taylor, Sarah Knott 2007

        Book 

      4. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment - Alan Charles Kors 2003 (electronic book)

        Book 

    3. Week 2: Hume on the rational basis of religious belief 5 items
      1. Hume on the Nature and Existence of God - Martin Bell

        Chapter  Available in the LIbrary and as an e-book.

      2. Hume on Religion - J. C. A. Gaskin

        Chapter  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    4. Week 3: Toleration 6 items
      1. Toleration in Conflict: Past and Present - Rainer Forst, Ciaran Cronin (trans) 2013 (electronic book)

        Book  Especially chapters 5 and 6.

      2. Scepticism, Priestcraft and Toleration - Richard H. Popkin, Mark Goldie

        Chapter  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      3. How the idea of religious toleration came to the West - Perez Zagorin 2003

        Book  Especially chapters 7 and 8. Available in the Library and as an e-book

    5. Week 4: Rousseau on inequality and sexuality 6 items
      1. Rousseau: a very short introduction - Robert Wokler 2001 (electronic book)

        Book 

    6. Week 5: Smith on self-interest, markets, and the pursuit of wealth 5 items
    7. Week 6: The relation between the sexes 5 items
      1. Women, gender and Enlightenment - Barbara Taylor, Sarah Knott 2007

        Book 

    8. Week 7: Race, slavery, and colonialism 8 items
      1. Human Nature - Aaron Garrett

        Chapter  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. The Enlightenment - Dorinda Outram 2013

        Book  Chs. 5 and 6. (Available in the Library and as an e-book)

    9. Week 8: Liberty and democracy 5 items
      1. Republicanism and Popular Sovereignty - Iring Fetscher

        Chapter  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. The American Revolution - Gordon S. Wood

        Chapter  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    10. Week 9: The rights of man, and of woman 5 items
      1. Women and enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century Britain - Karen O'Brien 2009 (electronic book)

        Book  Especially chapter 5 on Wollstonecraft.

    11. Week 10: Cosmopolitanism 5 items
      1. Perpetual peace: essays on Kant's cosmopolitan ideal - James Bohman, Matthias Lutz-Bachmann 1997

        Book 

    12. Week 11: Interpretation and legacy 10 items
      1. Most of the general accounts of the Enlightenment listed at the beginning of this list of secondary reading contain discussions of the many ways in which the Enlightenment has been interpreted and evaluated.

         

        For additional examples, see:

      2. Dialectic of enlightenment - Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, John Cumming (trans) 1997

        Book 

      3. Radical enlightenment: philosophy and the making of modernity, 1650-1750 - Jonathan Irvine Israel 2001

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      4. The Enlightenment: a sourcebook and reader - Paul Hyland, Olga Gomez, Francesca Greensides 2003

        Book  Ch. 14, 'Modern Critical Reflections'

      5. After virtue: a study in moral theory - Alasdair C. MacIntyre 2007

        Book 

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