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  1. WEEK 1: Introduction: Italy - A failed nation? 9 items
    1. Introductory reading: 9 items
      1. The Pinocchio effect: on making Italians 1860-1920 - Suzanne Stewart-Steinberg 2007

        Book  On order for the Library.

      2. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism - Benedict R. O'G. Anderson 2006

        Book  Available in Library and as an e-book. 1983 edition available in print in Librray.

      3. The Invention of tradition - E. J. Hobsbawm, T. O. Ranger 1992

        Book 

  2. WEEK 2: The Risorgimento and the creation of a national canon of heroes and martyrs 17 items
    Key questions: Was there a Risorgimento ‘canon’ and, if so, what were its components? How were the Risorgimento’s heroic figures invented and re-worked over time? How, and how effectively, did the ‘canon’ and roll-call of heroes help bind ‘Italians’ to their nation and one-another?
    1. Essential reading: 6 items
      1. Political cults in Liberal Italy, 1861-1922 - C. Duggan 2013

        Chapter  Available in Library and as an e-book.

      2. Garibaldi: invention of a hero - Lucy Riall 2007

        Book  Chapter 12, 'Culture Wars'

    2. Further reading: 11 items
      1. The Risorgimento and the unification of Italy - Derek Edward Dawson Beales, Eugenio F. Biagini 2002

        Book 

  3. WEEK 3: Liberal Italy and the 'Southern Question' 9 items
    Key question: How was the Mezzogiorno [Southern Italy] viewed – or imagined – by Italians after unification? How have historians contributed to the imagining of the South?
    1. Essential reading: 4 items
      1. Conflict and control: law and order in nineteenth-century Italy - John Anthony Davis 1988

        Book  Chapter 11, ‘Crime and the Southern question: Mafiosi and Camorristi”.

    2. Further reading: 5 items
      1. A patriotic disaster - J. Dickie 2000

        Chapter 

      2. Making democracy work: civic traditions in Modern Italy - Robert D. Putnam, Robert Leonardi, Raffaella Y. Nanetti 1994

        Book  Available in Library and as an e-book.

  4. WEEK 4: The 'Sogno Africano' [African Dream], Part 1. (Adwa and Libya) 11 items
    Key questions: Why were notions of empire and imperialism important in turn-of-the-century Italy? How were these conveyed / constructed? What impact did the defeat at Adwa [also written as Adua/Adowa] have in Italy and upon Italian identity?
    1. Essential reading: 5 items
      1. Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: from nation to nationalism - Christopher Duggan 2002

        Book  Available in Library and as an e-book. pp. 690 (’20 September 1895’) – 709.

      2. Fourth shore: the Italian colonization of Libya - Claudio G. Segrè 1974

        Book  Chapters 1 & 2, pp. 3-32.

      3. Italian national identity in the scramble for Africa: Italy's African wars in the era of nation-building, 1870-1900 - Giuseppe Finaldi 2009

        Book  Part II ‘The vehicles of Italy’s ‘culture of colonialism’ – ALL READ Introduction pp. 75-9, THEN ONE (to be divided in preceding class) of: Newspapers; Books and the ‘publishing ‘industry’; Novels, plays and puppet shows; Patriotic ephemera; Schools and school text books; The local commune, club and associations, the Church.

    2. Further reading: 6 items
      1. Italian colonialism - Ruth Ben-Ghiat, Mia Fuller 2005

        Book 

  5. WEEK 5: Fine-Secolo Crisis: Modernity, Nationalism and Futurism 13 items
    Key: What is the relationship between nationalism and ideas of modernity? How did fine-secolo [end-of-century] angst manifest itself in Italy? Who were the principal advocates of Italian nationalism in the early 20th century?
    1. Essential reading: 5 items
      1. Futurism and politics: between anarchist rebellion and fascist reaction, 1909-1944 - Günter Berghaus 1996

        Book  Read: chapter 2 ‘’Futurist politics from 1910-1917 and their influence on the radical left’.

    2. Further reading: 8 items
  6. WEEK 6: The Mobilisation of a Nation?: World War I 9 items
    Key questions: How did Italians experience war-time mobilization? How far did the war and its aftermath help bind Italians to their nation?
    1. Essential reading: 3 items
    2. Further reading: 6 items
      1. The first duce: D'Annunzio at Fiume - Michael Arthur Ledeen 1977

        Book 

  7. WEEK 7: Fascist Italy and Mussolini's project for ' New Italians' 20 items
    Key questions: Who were the ‘new Italians’ that Mussolini and the Fascists wished to create? How did they go about this task? How successful were they?
    1. Essential reading: 4 items
      1. The sacralization of politics in fascist Italy - Emilio Gentile, Keith Botsford 1996

        Book  Introduction,' In search of a civil religion’ and chapter 2 ‘The fatherland dons the blackshirt'.

      2. Making the fascist self: the political culture of interwar Italy - Mabel Berezin 1997

        Book  Chapter 6 ‘Dead bodies and live voices: locating the fascist self’.

    2. Further reading: 16 items
      1. Fascist modernities: Italy, 1922-1945 - Ruth Ben-Ghiat 2001

        Book  Available in Library and as an e-book.

      2. Politics as religion - Emilio Gentile 2006

        Book 

      3. The cult of the Duce: Mussolini and the Italians - Stephen Gundle, Christopher Duggan, Giuliana Pieri 2013

        Book  Available in Library and as an e-book.

      4. Ordinary violence in Mussolini's Italy - Michael R. Ebner 2011

        Book  Available in Library and as an e-book.

  8. WEEK 8: The 'Sogno Africano - e Mediterraneo' [African - and Mediterranean Dream], Part II. (The Fascist Empire) 24 items
    Key questions: Why were the notions of empire and imperialism important to the Fascists in Italy? How did the experience of empire shape Italian identity and notions of italianità [Italian-ness]?
    1. Essential reading: 14 items
      1. Myth and memory in the Mediterranean: remembering fascism's empire - Nicholas Doumanis 1997

        Book  Chapter 6 ‘Italian colonialism, Italian character’.

      2. Plus

      3. Or

      4. Plus

      5. Or

      6. Plus

      7. Or

    2. Further reading: 10 items
  9. WEEK 9: Italy of A 'Hundred Cities' 11 items
    Key questions: How important was region/locality – in comparison to nation – to the identities of post-unification Italians? Did a national identity effectively supplant local identities? Is the relationship between region/locality and nation inevitably one of conflict?
    1. Required reading: 4 items
      1. The politics of culture in liberal Italy: from unification to fascism - Axel Körner 2008

        Book  Available in Library and as an e-book. Chapter 7 ‘Urban space and civic culture. Representing city and nation’.

    2. Further reading: 7 items
      1. Laven D., 'Venice 1848–1914: the Venetian sense of the past and the creation of the Italian nation.' inWhyte, W. and Zimmer, O., eds., Nationalism and the reshaping of urban communities in Europe, 1848-1914 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011) 47-73

      2. Making the fascist self: the political culture of interwar Italy - Mabel Berezin 1997

        Book  Chapter 5 ‘Colonising time: rhythms of fascist ritual in Verona’.

  10. WEEK 10: Culture and Nation-Building 22 items
    Key question: How did the ‘cultural industries’ and ‘cultural products contribute to nation-building? Could Italians be ‘made’ in the cultural sphere?
    1. Essential reading (This week’s readings will be divided among groups): 13 items
      1. Music:

      2. The Puccini problem: opera, nationalism and modernity - Alexandra Wilson 2007

        Book  Available in Library and as an e-book. Chapter 1 ‘Inventing an Italian composer’.

      3. Food:

      4. Delizia!: the epic history of the Italians and their food - John Dickie 2007

        Book  Section on ‘Food for the new nation’, especially chapter 12 ‘Florence 1891: Pellegrino Artusi’.

      5. Cinema:

      6. Mussolini's dream factory: film stardom in fascist Italy - Stephen Gundle 2013

        Book  Especially chapter 1 ‘Italian cinema under fascism’.

      7. Mass culture and Italian society from Fascism to the Cold War - David Forgacs, Stephen Gundle 2007 (electronic book)

        Book  Chapters 4 & 5.

    2. Further reading: 9 items
      1. Re-viewing fascism: Italian cinema, 1922-1943 - Jacqueline Reich, Piero Garofalo 2002

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

  11. WEEK 11: World War II and After: From 'Civil War' to Republic 14 items
    Key questions: Is the period from 1943 to 1945 best characterized as ‘resistance’ or ‘civil war’ and what are the implications of these terms? What was the impact of the Second World War on Italian national identity? By the close of the war, had Italians been ‘made’?
    1. Essential reading: 7 items
      1. A civil war: a history of the Italian resistance - Claudio Pavone, Peter Levy, David Broder 2014

        Book  Chapter 5.

      2. Political History of National Citizenship and Identity in Italy, 1861-1950 - Sabina Donati 2013

        Book  Chapter 8 ‘The armistice of 8 September, Brindisi and Salò. Reflections on citizenship issues (1943-1945)’.

      3. Plus

      4. Or

    2. Further reading: 7 items
      1. A civil war: a history of the Italian resistance - Claudio Pavone, Peter Levy, David Broder 2014

        Book 

      2. The Italian dictatorship: problems and perspectives in the interpretation of Mussolini and fascism - R. J. B. Bosworth 1998

        Book  Chapter 8 ‘Resistance or civil war, 1943-1945?’.

  12. Selected General Bibliography 142 items
    1. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism - Benedict R. O'G. Anderson 2006

      Book  Available in Library and as an e-book.

    2. La nazione del risorgimento - Alberto Mario Banti 2006

      Book 

    3. The garden of the Finzi-Contini - Vittorio De Sica, Lino Capolicchio, Dominique Sanda, Fabio Testi 2011 (dvd)

      Audio-visual document 

    4. The Risorgimento and the unification of Italy - Derek Edward Dawson Beales, Eugenio F. Biagini 2002

      Book 

    5. Italian colonialism - Ben-Ghiat, Ruth, Fuller, Mia 2005

      Book 

    6. History as it really wasn't: the myths of Italian historiography - Ruth Ben-Ghiat, Luciano Cafagna, Ernesto Galli della Loggia, Carl Ipsen 2001

      Article 

    7. Bidussa D Il mito del bravo italiano Milan, Il Saggiatore, 1994.

    8. Cannistraro P "Mussolini and Fascist anti-semitism: turning point of a regime" in DiNapoli, T.P., ed. The Italian Jewish Experience Stony Brook, New York, 2000.

    9. Chabod F., (Saitta A. & Sestan E. eds.), L'Idea di nazione, Bari, Laterza, 1961.

    10. Interpretations of fascism - A. James Gregor 1997

      Book 

    11. The Jews in Fascist Italy: a history - Renzo De Felice, Robert L. Miller 2001

      Book 

    12. How fascism ruled women: Italy, 1922-1945 - Victoria De Grazia 1993

      Book  Available in Library and as an e-book.

    13. Gli italiani in Africa orientale - Angelo Del Boca, Robert Oresko 1976-1984

      Book 

    14. Francesco Crispi 1818-1901: from nation to nationalism - Christopher Duggan 2002

      Book  Available in Library and as an e-book.

    15. Ellwood D & Bravo A "Oral history and resistance history in Italy" in Thompson P ed. Our Common History: The Transformation of Europe Pluto, London, 1982

    16. Mass culture and Italian society from Fascism to the Cold War - David Forgacs, Stephen Gundle 2007 (electronic book)

      Book  Chapters 4 & 5.

    17. The sacralization of politics in fascist Italy - Emilio Gentile, Keith Botsford 1996

      Book 

    18. Politics as religion - Emilio Gentile 2006

      Book 

    19. The Invention of tradition - E. J. Hobsbawm, T. O. Ranger 1992

      Book 

    20. Journal of Modern Italian Studies 2008

      Journal  Special Issue on Garibaldi and Mazzini.

    21. Journal of Modern Italian Studies 2004

      Journal  Special Issue on Italian War Crimes.

    22. Labanca N., L'Africa in vetrina: Storia di musei e di esposizioni coloniali in Italia, Treviso, Pagus, 1992.

    23. The first duce: D'Annunzio at Fiume - Michael Arthur Ledeen 1977

      Book 

    24. Society and the professions in Italy, 1860-1914 - Maria Malatesta, Adrian Belton 1995

      Book 

    25. Marinetti - selected writings - F. T. Marinetti, Robert Willard Flint, Arthur A. Coppotelli 1972

      Book 

    26. Capital city: Rome 1870-2010 - Cristina Mazzoni 2010

      Book 

    27. Modern Italy 2003

      Journal  Special Issue on Colonialism

    28. Nations and Nationalism

      Journal  Special Issue on 'Alberto Banti's interpretation of Risorgimento nationalism'.

    29. Una guerra civile - Claudio Pavone 1991

      Book 

    30. Making democracy work: civic traditions in Modern Italy - Robert D. Putnam, Robert Leonardi, Raffaella Y. Nanetti 1994

      Book  Available in Library and as an e-book.

    31. Rochat G., Il colonialismo italiano, Turin, Loescher, 1973.

    32. The Pinocchio effect: on making Italians 1860-1920 - Suzanne Stewart-Steinberg 2007

      Book  On order for the Library.

    33. Jews in Italy under Fascist and Nazi rule, 1922-1945 - Joshua D. Zimmerman 2005

      Book  esp chapters 16-18

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