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This list relates to the 2017-18 which ended on 18/08/2018
  1. Required Textbook 1 item
    You should purchase a copy of the following textbook, chapters of which are assigned as required reading almost every week.
  2. Background Reading on African History and Politics 6 items
    If you have not studied African history and politics before taking this module, you may wish to read one or more of the following textbooks alongside the required readings. Cooper and Nugent each provide overviews from a historian's perspective; Englebert and Dunn, Hyden, and Thomson offer introductions from a political scientist's perspective; and Young's book is somewhere in between, with a particular focus on the state.
    1. Inside African politics - Pierre Englebert, Kevin C. Dunn 2013

      Book 

    2. African Politics in Comparative Perspective - Goran Hyden 2012 (electronic book)

      Book  A print copy of the first edition is also available at classmark JA84.A4H8.

    3. An introduction to African politics - Alex Thomson 2016

      Book  3rd edition (2010) also available in Library and as an e-book.

  3. Additional Resources: Journals and Websites 24 items
    The following journals regularly publish scholarly work on armed conflict, sometimes with a focus on Africa:
    1. For journals that publish only on issues relating to Africa, including armed conflict, see:

    2. The following websites contain useful news stories and/or in-depth reports on issues relating to armed conflict in Africa (sometimes linked to advocacy):

       

      AllAfrica: http://allafrica.com/

      Amnesty International: https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/

      BBC News Africa: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world/africa

      Human Rights Watch: https://www.hrw.org/africa

      International Crisis Group: https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa

      IRIN News: http://www.irinnews.org/africa

      Rift Valley Institute: http://riftvalley.net/

  4. Week 1: An Overview of Armed Conflict in Postcolonial Africa 7 items
    1. Lecture Questions: How do scholars categorize different types and dimensions of conflicts? Are there any clear historical trends in the evolution of armed conflict in postcolonial Africa?

    2. Required Reading: 2 items
      1. Warfare in independent Africa - William Reno 2011

        Book  Chap. 1 (“Evolving Warfare”), pp. 1–36.

      2. War and conflict in Africa - Paul D. Williams 2016

        Book  Introduction and Part I, pp. 1–63

    3. Further Reading: 4 items
      1. Organized violence, 1989–2016 - Marie Allansson, Erik Melander, Lotta Themnér 2017

        Article 

      2. Inside African politics - Pierre Englebert, Kevin C. Dunn 2013

        Book  Chap. 7 (“The Shifting Landscape of Conflict and Security”), pp. 267–312.

      3. The postcolonial state in Africa: fifty years of independence, 1960-2010 - Crawford Young 2012

        Book  Chap. 7 (“Morphology…”), pp. 227–290.

  5. Part I: Categories

  6. Week 2: Interstate Conflicts | Case Study: Eritrea/Ethiopia 16 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why have there been so few interstate wars in postcolonial Africa? What were the main causes and characteristics of these wars?

       

      Tutorial Question: What is the single most important cause of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War?

    2. Required Reading: 4 items
    3. Further Reading: 11 items
      1. Causes of war - Jack S. Levy, William R. Thompson 2010 (electronic book)

        Book 

  7. Week 3: Center-Seeking vs. Secessionist Intrastate Conflicts | Case Study: Sudan 18 items
    1. Lecture Question: Why have there been so many more center-seeking than secessionist intrastate conflicts in Africa?

       

      Tutorial Question: Why did Sudan's second North–South conflict (1983–2005) begin as a center-seeking civil war but eventually result in secession?

    2. Required Reading: 5 items
      1. Africa: unity, sovereignty, and sorrow - Pierre Englebert 2009

        Book  Ch. 1 (“The Resilience of the African State”)

      2. Africa: unity, sovereignty, and sorrow - Pierre Englebert 2009

        Book  Ch. 2 (“The Puzzle of Territorial Integrity”)

      3. War and conflict in Africa - Paul D. Williams 2016

        Book  Ch 5, 'Sovereignty' pp.114-139 [Available in the library and as an e-book.]

      4. South Sudan: from revolution to independence - Matthew LeRiche, Matthew Arnold 2013

        Book  Available in the library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading: 12 items
      1. Africa: unity, sovereignty, and sorrow - Pierre Englebert 2009

        Book  Chap. 6 (“Separatist Illusions and Sovereignty Variations”), pp. 155–193.

      2. A history of modern Sudan - Robert O. Collins 2008

        Book 

      3. Sudan’s Civil War: Why Has It Prevailed For So Long? - Gadir Ali, Ali Abdel, Ibrahim A. Elbadawi, Atta El-Batahani

        Chapter 

      4. South Sudan: from revolution to independence - Matthew LeRiche, Matthew Arnold 2013

        Book  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      5. A history of South Sudan: from slavery to independence - Øystein H. Rolandsen, M. W. Daly 2016

        Book 

  8. Week 4: External Dimensions of Intrastate Conflicts | Case Study: DRC I 18 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What are the main external dimensions of intrastate conflicts in post-colonial Africa? Why are so many of its conflicts "internationalized"?

       

      Tutorial Question: Do you agree with Emizet François Kisangani's characterization of the Congo Wars (1996–2003) as primarily internal conflicts?

    2. Required Reading: 4 items
      1. Foreign intervention in Africa: from the Cold War to the War on Terror - Elizabeth Schmidt, William Minter 2013

        Book  Chap. 8 (“From the Cold War…”), pp. 193–226 digitised.

      2. Rebels without borders: transnational insurgencies in world politics - Idean Salehyan 2011

        Book  Read: Introduction, pp. 1-18. Available in the Library and online via Google Books

      3. Civil wars in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 1960-2010 - Emizet F. Kisangani 2012

        Book  Read: Chapter 5, "Warring against the President", pp.117-165

    3. Further Reading: 13 items
      1. Transnational dynamics of civil war - Jeffrey T. Checkel 2013

        Book 

  9. Part II: Causes

  10. Week 5: Neopatrimonialism | Case Study: Liberia 17 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What is neopatrimonialism? How is it linked to armed conflict?

       

      Tutorial Question: Does neopatrimonialism explain the outbreak of the Liberian civil war in December 1989?

    2. Required Reading: 5 items
      1. African economies and the politics of permanent crisis, 1979-1999 - Nicolas Van de Walle 2001

        Book  Pp. 115–129 (“The Exigencies…” section).

      2. War and conflict in Africa - Paul D. Williams 2016

        Book  Chap. 3 (“Neopatrimonialism”), pp. 67–85.

      3. Liberia’s Warlord Insurgency. - Stephen Ellis 1998

        Chapter 

      4. Warlord politics and African states - William Reno 1998

        Book  Chap. 3 (“The Organization…”), pp. 79–111.

    3. Further Reading: 11 items
      1. Neopatrimonialism in Africa and beyond - Daniel C. Bach, Mamoudou Gazibo 2012

        Book 

      2. The Underdeveloped State in Tropical Africa: Political Clientelism or Neo-Patrimonialism? - Jean-François Médard

        Chapter  In Private Patronage and Public Power: Political Clientelism and the Modern State, edited by Christopher Clapham.

      3. Liberia. - Christopher Clapham 1989

        Chapter 

      4. The Liberian Civil War - Mark Huband 1998

        Book 

      5. Rebellion in Liberia and Sierra Leone: A Crisis of Youth? - Paul Richards

        Chapter  [Also relevant for Week 6.]

  11. Week 6: Greed and Grievance | Case Study: Sierra Leone I 20 items
    1. Lecture Questions:To what extent has the debate about greed versus grievance been resolved? How can each of these two concepts be disaggregated?

       

      Tutorial Question:  Considering both its origins and evolution, was Sierra Leone's Revolutionary United Front (RUF) driven more by greed than by grievances?        

    2. Required Reading: 5 items
      1. Inequality, grievances, and civil war - Lars-Erik Cederman, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, Halvard Buhaug 2013

        Book  Chaps. 1 (“Introduction”) [Also relevant for Week 7.] [Available in the library and as an e-book.]

      2. Inequality, grievances, and civil war - Lars-Erik Cederman, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, Halvard Buhaug 2013

        Book  Chapter 2 (“Inequality and Grievances in the Civil War Literature"), pp. 11-29. [Also relevant for Week 7.] [Available in the library and as an e-book.]

      3. War and conflict in Africa - Paul D. Williams 2016

        Book  Chap. 4 (“Resources”), pp. 86–113

      4. War and the crisis of youth in Sierra Leone - Krijn Peters 2011

        Book  Chap. 8 (“Conclusion: The RUF as a Rural Underclass Project”), pp. 212–242.

    3. Further Reading: 14 items
      1. Wars of Plunder - Philippe Le Billon 2014

        Book 

  12. Week 7: Ethnicity | Case Study: South Sudan 19 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What is ethnicity? Do ethnic identities shape politics in Africa? How are they linked to armed conflict?

       

      Tutorial Question:  How important is ethnicity relative to other factors in explaining the outbreak of civil war in South Sudan in December 2013?        

    2. Required Reading: 5 items
      1. War and conflict in Africa - Paul D. Williams 2016

        Book  Chap. 6 (“Ethnicity”), pp. 140–159

    3. Further Reading: 13 items
      1. Why Do Ethnic Groups Rebel? New Data and Analysis - Lars-Erik Cederman, Andreas Wimmer, Brian Min 2010

        Article 

      2. Review: Violence and the Social Construction of Ethnic Identity - James D. Fearon, David D. Laitin 2000

        Article  [Review article.]

      3. Review: Deciphering Disorder in Africa: Is Identity the Key? - Crawford Young 2002

        Article  [Review article. Also relevant for Week 9.]

      4. South Sudan: from revolution to independence - Matthew LeRiche, Matthew Arnold 2013

        Book  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      5. A history of South Sudan: from slavery to independence - Øystein H. Rolandsen, M. W. Daly 2016

        Book  Esp. Chaps. 9–10.

  13. Week 8: No lecture/tutorials due to the International Studies Association's Annual Convention

  14. Week 9: Religion | Case Study: Nigeria 19 items
    1. Lecture Questions:What types of "religious armed conflicts" are there? What explains the relatively recent rise of "Islamist violence" in Africa?

       

      Tutorial Question:  Do you agree with Paul Williams' assessment that religion was "in some senses not the most important" factor for Boko Haram's rise?         

    2. Required Reading: 4 items
      1. War and conflict in Africa - Paul D. Williams 2016

        Book  Chap. 7 (“Religion”), pp. 160–185.

      2. Boko Haram: the history of an African jihadist movement - Alexander Thurston 2018

        Book  Read: Introduction, pp. 1–33. PDF available online: http://assets.press.princeton.edu/chapters/i11094.pdf

    3. Further Reading: 14 items
      1. Do Religious Factors Impact Armed Conflict? Empirical Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa - Matthias Basedau, Georg Strüver, Johannes Vüllers, Tim Wegenast 2011

        Article 

      2. Boko Haram: inside Nigeria's unholy war - Mike Smith 2015

        Book  [Note that this is a journalistic account.]

      3. 'Eat the heart of the infidel': the harrowing of Nigeria and the rise of Boko Haram - Andrew Walker 2016

        Book  [Note that this is a journalistic account.]

  15. Part III: Responses

  16. Week 10: Peacemaking | Case Study: DRC II 21 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Is power sharing the only viable solution to ending Africa's armed conflicts? How does it work best?

       

      Tutorial Question: Why did the power-sharing agreement that concluded the Inter-Congolese Dialogue in 2003 not bring lasting peace to the DRC?        

    2. Required Reading: 5 items
      1. War and conflict in Africa - Paul D. Williams 2016

        Book  Chap. 9 (“Peacemaking”), pp. 213–231.

      2. The Inter-Congolese Dialogue: A Critical Overview. - Emeric Rogier

        Chapter  In: Challenges of Peace Implementation: The UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Content also available via: https://oldsite.issafrica.org/uploads/CHALLENGESPEACEINTERCONGO.PDF

    3. Further Reading: 15 items
      1. Power Sharing, Protection, and Peace - Scott Gates, Benjamin A. T. Graham, Yonatan Lupu, Håvard Strand 2016

        Article 

      2. Understanding conflict resolution - Peter Wallensteen 2015

        Book 

      3. Kivu's Intractable Security Conundrum - Koen Vlassenroot, Timothy Raeymaekers 2009

        Article 

  17. Week 11: Peacekeeping | Case Study: Sierra Leone II 17 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Does peacekeeping work? How has it changed in Africa over the years?

       

      Tutorial Question: What explains the initial failure and eventual success of peacekeeping in Sierra Leone?

    2. Required Reading: 4 items
      1. Does peacekeeping work?: shaping belligerents' choices after civil war - Virginia Page Fortna 2008

        Book  Chap. 1 (“Peacekeeping and the Peacekept…”), pp. 1–17. [Available in Library and as an e-book.]

      2. War and conflict in Africa - Paul D. Williams 2016

        Book  Chap. 10 (“Peace Operations”), pp. 232–252.

      3. Sierra Leone - Adebajo Adekeye, David Keen

        Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      4. Does peacekeeping work?: shaping belligerents' choices after civil war - Virginia Page Fortna 2008

        Book  Sections on Sierra Leone in Chaps. 3 and 6, pp. 55–61, 66–70, 137–143, 151–154, 159–161, 166–170. [Available in the library and as an e-book.]

    3. Further Reading: 12 items
      1. Understanding peacekeeping - Alex J. Bellamy, Paul Williams, Stuart Griffin 2010

        Book 

      2. Making war and building peace: United Nations peace operations - Michael W. Doyle, Nicholas Sambanis 2006

        Book 

      3. Pitfalls and Prospects in the Peacekeeping Literature - Virginia Page Fortna, Lise Morjé Howard 2008

        Article 

      4. UN peacekeeping in civil wars - Lise Morjé Howard 2008

        Book 

      5. Building peace in West Africa: Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea-Bissau - Adekeye Adebajo 2002

        Book  Read: Chap. 4 ("Sierra Leone"), pp. 79–109.

      6. Sierra Leone - John Hirsch

        Chapter 

      7. United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone - Funmi Olonisakin

        Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

      8. United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone - Funmi Olonisakin

        Chapter  Available in the library and as an e-book.

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