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This list relates to the 2016-17 which ended on 31/07/2017
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  1. I. Conceptualizing Armed Groups

  2. Week 1: 'Rebels' and/or 'Terrorists'? 13 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What distinguishes 'rebel' from 'terrorist' groups? How can there be 'terrorist rebel groups'? What other types of groups are there? And how should we classify the so-called Islamic State (ISIS)?

    2. Required Reading 4 items
    3. Further Reading 8 items
      1. Killing Civilians or Holding Territory? How to Think about Terrorism - Victor Asal, Luis de la Calle, Michael Findley, Joseph Young 2012

        Article 

      2. Do Terrorists Win? Rebels' Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes - Virginia Page Fortna 2015

        Article  Required reading for week 11.

      3. Inside Terrorism - Bruce Hoffman 2006

        Book  Chapter 1, 'Defining Terrorism', pp. 1–41. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      4. Armed groups: the 21st century threat - Peter G. Thompson 2014 (electronic book)

        Book  Chapter 4, 'Armed-Group Archetypes', pp. 75–102.

  3. Week 2: Militias – Iraq I 20 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What are militias? How do scholars conceptualize different types of militias? What distinguishes them from rebel and terrorist groups?

      Tutorial Questions: What differences exist among Shia armed groups in Iraq since 2003? Why are they often called 'militias' whereas Sunni armed groups are typically labeled 'insurgents'?

    2. Required Reading 7 items
      1. Proxy Warriors: the rise and fall of state-sponsored militias - Ariel I. Ahram 2011

        Book  Introduction and chapter 1, pp. 1–24. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. Militias in Civil Wars - C. Jentzsch, S. N. Kalyvas, L. I. Schubiger 2015

        Article 

      3. The Adelphi Papers: Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency - Ahmed S. Hashim 2009

        Journal  Introduction and chapter 1, 'Origins, …', pp. 7–24.

      4. Who are Iraq's militias? - Annie Slemrod 3 July 2016

        Article 

    3. Further Reading 12 items
      1. Iraq - Ariel I. Ahram

        Chapter  Focused on pre-2003 Iraq. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. The Adelphi Papers: Iraq's Sunni Insurgency - Ahmed S. Hashim 2008

        Journal  All other chapters.

      3. The Rise of Iraq's Militia State - Kirk. H. Sowell 2015

        Article  First short article in the series 'Shia Militias and the Future of the Iraqi State'. Further articles below.

      4. A History of Iraq - Charles Tripp 2007

        Book  For historical background.

  4. II. Organizational Challenges

  5. Week 3: Overview of Organizational Perspectives – Iraq II and Syria 16 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What is the organizational study of armed groups? Which organizational challenges do different types of groups face?

      Tutorial Questions: Which of the organizational challenges described by Shapiro and Weinstein are currently most acute for ISIS? How have different challenges evolved from the time of its predecessor, Al-Qa'ida in Iraq?

    2. Required Reading 5 items
      1. The Terrorist's Dilemma: managing violent covert organizations - Jacob N. Shapiro 2013

        Book  Chapters 1, 'Introduction', and 4, 'Organizing Al-Qa’ida in Iraq’s Operations and Finances', pp. 1–25, 82–100. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. Inside Rebellion: the politics of insurgent violence - Jeremy M. Weinstein 2007

        Book  Introduction and chapter 1, 'The Industrial…', pp. 1–60. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      3. Revisit the texts on ISIS from week 1.

    3. Further Reading 10 items
      1. What Makes Terrorists Tick - Erica Chenoweth 2009

        Article  Exchange featuring organizational perspectives in response to Abrahms' article below.

  6. Week 4: Recruitment – Uganda 15 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why is it sometimes safer to participate in a rebellion than not to? What determines different levels of coercion in rebel recruitment?

      Tutorial Questions: What were the recruitment practices of the NRA and the LRA? How do they compare, and what explains their differences and/or similarities?

    2. Required Reading 4 items
      1. On the Nature and Causes of LRA Abduction: What the Abductees Say - Christopher Blattman, Jeannie Annan

        Chapter  Digitised.

      2. Uganda: The Lord’s Resistance Army - Kevin C. Dunn

        Chapter  Digitised.

      3. Inside Rebellion: the politics of insurgent violence - Jeremy M. Weinstein 2007

        Book  pp. 62–71 (NRA overview) and pp. 96–111 (recruitment in theory and in the case of the NRA). Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading 10 items
      1. The Lord's Resistance Army: myth and reality - Tim Allen, Koen Vlassenroot 2010

        Book 

      2. The social origins of violence in Uganda: 1964-1985 - A. B. K. Kasozi, Nakanyike Musisi, James Mukooza Sejjengo 1994

        Book 

  7. Week 5: Control – Northern Ireland 14 items
    1. Lecture Questions: How do armed groups control their members? What are the main differences in control mechanisms between groups that hold territory and those that do not?

      Tutorial Questions: Which were the main armed groups on the Republican and Loyalist sides in the Northern Ireland conflict? How and why did they resemble and/or differ from each other with regard to controlling their members?

    2. Required Reading 3 items
      1. The Terrorist's Dilemma: managing violent covert organizations - Jacob N. Shapiro 2013

        Book  Chapters 2, 'The Terrorist’s Dilemma', and 7, 'Discrimination and Control in Ireland', pp. 26–62, 169–204. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading 10 items
      1. Violent order: understanding rebel governance through Liberia's civil war - Nicholai Hart Lidow 2016

        Book  Chap. 2 ("Leaders, Commanders, and Soldiers"), pp. 32–64

      2. Control - Jeremy M. Weinstein

        Chapter 

  8. Week 6: Governance – Colombia 13 items
    1. Lecture Questions: How do armed groups govern civilians in the territory they control? What accounts for variation in governance strategies and civilian responses?

      Tutorial Questions: Which types of armed groups governed in Colombia? To what extent and why did their efforts and civilian responses to them differ?

    2. Required Reading 2 items
      1. Rebel Governance in Civil War - Ana Arjona, Nelson Kasfir, Zachariah Cherian Mampilly 2015

        Book  Chapters 1–2, as well as 9 and 12 on Colombia, pp. 1–46, 180–202, 246–264.

    3. Further Reading 10 items
      1. Rebel Governance in Civil War - Ana Arjona, Nelson Kasfir, Zachariah Cherian Mampilly 2015

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. Governance - Jeremy M. Weinstein

        Chapter  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      3. Organized violence after civil war: the geography of recruitment in Latin America - Sarah Zukerman Daly 2016

        Book  Esp. Chap. 3 ("Violence and Peace in Colombia"), pp. 44–71.

  9. Week 7: Violence – Palestine 17 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why do armed groups use selective or indiscriminate violence against civilians? Are different types of groups more likely to use one type of violence rather than the other?

      Tutorial Questions: How do Fatah and Hamas compare in terms of their use of violence? What is more important in accounting for their behavior: dynamics within or between them?

    2. Required Reading 3 items
      1. Inside rebellion: the politics of insurgent violence - Jeremy M. Weinstein 2007

        Book  Parts of chapter 6, 'Violence', pp. 198–217. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. The terrorist's dilemma: managing violent covert organizations - Jacob N. Shapiro 2013

        Book  Chapter 8, 'Preference Divergence and Control in Palestine', pp. 205–248. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading 13 items
      1. Hamas: The Islamic Resistance Movement - Beverley Milton-Edwards, Stephen Farrell 2010

        Book 

  10. III. Alliance Politics

  11. Week 8: Alliances between Groups – Afghanistan I 16 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why do armed groups form alliances with each other? In what ways do they cooperate?

      Tutorial Questions: Which were the main armed groups in Afghanistan between 1979 and 1998? How and why did the alliances among them evolve over time?

    2. Required Reading 1 item
      1. Alliance Formation in Civil Wars - Fotini Christia 2012 (electronic book)

        Book  Introduction and chapters 1–4, pp. 1–125.

    3. Further Reading 14 items
      1. Alliances between Militant Groups - Navin A. Bapat, Kanisha D. Bond 2012

        Article 

      2. Revolution unending: Afghanistan : 1979 to the present - Gilles Dorronsoro, trans. John King 2005

        Book 

      3. The Afghanistan Wars - William Maley 2009

        Book  Introduction and chapters 1-10, pp. 1-209.

      4. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: state formation and collapse in the international system - Barnett R. Rubin 2002

        Book  Especially Part III, 'The Islamic Resistance', pp. 177-264.

      5. Organizations at war in Afghanistan and beyond - Abdulkader H. Sinno 2008

        Book  Chaps. 5–9, pp. 101–277.

      6. Organizing Rebellion in Afghanistan - Paul Staniland

        Chapter  Required reading for week 11.

  12. Week 9: Alliances with States – DRC 17 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why do armed groups form alliances with foreign states? More broadly, why do they engage in diplomacy with the outside world?

      Tutorial Questions: With which states were the RCD-K/ML, the UPC, the FNI, and the FRPI allied between 1999 and 2003? Why were their alliances and the groups themselves so unstable?

    2. Required Reading 4 items
      1. Explaining External Support for Insurgent Groups - Idean Salehyan, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, David E. Cunningham 2011

        Article 

    3. Further Reading 12 items
      1. The First African World War - Filip Reyntjens

        Chapter 

  13. IV. Organizational Outcomes

  14. Week 10: Cohesion or Fragmentation – Kashmir 14 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why do some armed groups remain cohesive collective actors over long periods of time while others splinter into rival organizations?

      Tutorial Questions: How do the JKLF and the Hizbul Mujahideen compare in terms of cohesion and fragmentation? What explains their similarities and/or differences?

    2. Required Reading 2 items
      1. Networks of rebellion: explaining insurgent cohesion and collapse - Paul Staniland 2014

        Book  Chapters 1–4, pp. 1–99. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading 11 items
      1. A Plague of Initials: Fragmentation, Cohesion, and Infighting in Civil Wars - Kristin M. Bakke, Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham, Lee J. M. Seymour 2012

        Article 

      2. Demystifying Kashmir - Navnita Chadha Behera 2006

        Book 

      3. India, Pakistan and the secret Jihad: the covert war in Kashmir, 1947-2004 - Praveen Swami 2013

        Book  First edition also available at classmark DS485.K27S8.

  15. Week 11: Success or Failure – Afghanistan II 10 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What does it mean to 'succeed' or 'fail' for different types of armed groups? What explains these outcomes?

      Tutorial Questions: In relative terms, how successful have different Afghan armed groups been since 1979? What accounts for their successes and failures?

    2. Required Reading 4 items
      1. Revisit Christia 2012 from week 8.

      2. Organizing Rebellion in Afghanistan - Paul Staniland

        Chapter  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading 5 items
      1. How Insurgencies End - Ben Connable, Martin C. Libicki 2010

        Book 

      2. How terrorism ends: understanding the decline and demise of terrorist campaigns - Audrey Kurth Cronin 2009

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      3. On Afghanistan, see further reading for week 8, especially Sinno 2008.

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