globe
  1. I. Conceptualizing Armed Groups

  2. Week 1: 'Rebels' and/or 'Terrorists'? 13 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What distinguishes 'rebel' from 'terrorist' groups? How can there be 'terrorist rebel groups'? What other types of groups are there? And how should we classify the so-called Islamic State (ISIS)?

    2. Required Reading 4 items
    3. Further Reading 8 items
      1. Killing Civilians or Holding Territory? How to Think about Terrorism - Victor Asal, Luis de la Calle, Michael Findley, Joseph Young 2012

        Article 

      2. Do Terrorists Win? Rebels' Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes - Virginia Page Fortna 2015

        Article  Required reading for week 11.

      3. Inside Terrorism - Bruce Hoffman 2006

        Book  Chapter 1, 'Defining Terrorism', pp. 1–41. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      4. Armed groups: the 21st century threat - Peter G. Thompson 2014 (electronic book)

        Book  Chapter 4, 'Armed-Group Archetypes', pp. 75–102.

  3. Week 2: Militias – Iraq I 20 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What are militias? How do scholars conceptualize different types of militias? What distinguishes them from rebel and terrorist groups?

      Tutorial Questions: What differences exist among Shia armed groups in Iraq since 2003? Why are they often called 'militias' whereas Sunni armed groups are typically labeled 'insurgents'?

    2. Required Reading 7 items
      1. Proxy Warriors: the rise and fall of state-sponsored militias - Ariel I. Ahram 2011

        Book  Introduction and chapter 1, pp. 1–24. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. Militias in Civil Wars - C. Jentzsch, S. N. Kalyvas, L. I. Schubiger 2015

        Article 

      3. The Adelphi Papers: Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency - Ahmed S. Hashim 2009

        Journal  Introduction and chapter 1, 'Origins, …', pp. 7–24.

      4. Who are Iraq's militias? - Annie Slemrod 3 July 2016

        Article 

    3. Further Reading 12 items
      1. Iraq - Ariel I. Ahram

        Chapter  Focused on pre-2003 Iraq. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. The Adelphi Papers: Iraq's Sunni Insurgency - Ahmed S. Hashim 2008

        Journal  All other chapters.

      3. The Rise of Iraq's Militia State - Kirk. H. Sowell 2015

        Article  First short article in the series 'Shia Militias and the Future of the Iraqi State'. Further articles below.

      4. A History of Iraq - Charles Tripp 2007

        Book  For historical background.

  4. II. Organizational Challenges

  5. Week 3: Overview of Organizational Perspectives – Iraq II and Syria 16 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What is the organizational study of armed groups? Which organizational challenges do different types of groups face?

      Tutorial Questions: Which of the organizational challenges described by Shapiro and Weinstein are currently most acute for ISIS? How have different challenges evolved from the time of its predecessor, Al-Qa'ida in Iraq?

    2. Required Reading 5 items
      1. The Terrorist's Dilemma: managing violent covert organizations - Jacob N. Shapiro 2013

        Book  Chapters 1, 'Introduction', and 4, 'Organizing Al-Qa’ida in Iraq’s Operations and Finances', pp. 1–25, 82–100. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. Inside Rebellion: the politics of insurgent violence - Jeremy M. Weinstein 2007

        Book  Introduction and chapter 1, 'The Industrial…', pp. 1–60. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      3. Revisit the texts on ISIS from week 1.

    3. Further Reading 10 items
      1. What Makes Terrorists Tick - Erica Chenoweth 2009

        Article  Exchange featuring organizational perspectives in response to Abrahms' article below.

  6. Week 4: Recruitment – Uganda 15 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why is it sometimes safer to participate in a rebellion than not to? What determines different levels of coercion in rebel recruitment?

      Tutorial Questions: What were the recruitment practices of the NRA and the LRA? How do they compare, and what explains their differences and/or similarities?

    2. Required Reading 4 items
      1. Inside Rebellion: the politics of insurgent violence - Jeremy M. Weinstein 2007

        Book  pp. 62–71 (NRA overview) and pp. 96–111 (recruitment in theory and in the case of the NRA). Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading 10 items
      1. The Lord's Resistance Army: myth and reality - Tim Allen, Koen Vlassenroot 2010

        Book 

      2. Kasozi, A. B. K. 1994. The Social Origins of Violence in Uganda, 1964–1985. With the assistance and collaboration of Nakanyike Musisi and James Mukooza Sejjengo. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.

        Copy on order for the Library.

  7. Week 5: Control – Northern Ireland 14 items
    1. Lecture Questions: How do armed groups control their members? What are the main differences in control mechanisms between groups that hold territory and those that do not?

      Tutorial Questions: Which were the main armed groups on the Republican and Loyalist sides in the Northern Ireland conflict? How and why did they resemble and/or differ from each other with regard to controlling their members?

    2. Required Reading 3 items
      1. The Terrorist's Dilemma: managing violent covert organizations - Jacob N. Shapiro 2013

        Book  Chapters 2, 'The Terrorist’s Dilemma', and 7, 'Discrimination and Control in Ireland', pp. 26–62, 169–204. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading 10 items
      1. Violent order: understanding rebel governance through Liberia's civil war - Nicholai Hart Lidow 2016

        Book  Chap. 2 ("Leaders, Commanders, and Soldiers"), pp. 32–64

      2. Control - Jeremy M. Weinstein

        Chapter 

      3. Wood, Ian S. 2006. Crimes of Loyalty: A History of the UDA. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

        Copy on order for the Library.

  8. Week 6: Governance – Colombia 13 items
    1. Lecture Questions: How do armed groups govern civilians in the territory they control? What accounts for variation in governance strategies and civilian responses?

      Tutorial Questions: Which types of armed groups governed in Colombia? To what extent and why did their efforts and civilian responses to them differ?

    2. Required Reading 2 items
      1. Rebel Governance in Civil War - Ana Arjona, Nelson Kasfir, Zachariah Cherian Mampilly 2015

        Book  Chapters 1–2, as well as 9 and 12 on Colombia, pp. 1–46, 180–202, 246–264.

    3. Further Reading 10 items
      1. Rebel Governance in Civil War - Ana Arjona, Nelson Kasfir, Zachariah Cherian Mampilly 2015

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. Mampilly, Zachariah Cherian. 2011. Rebel Rulers: Insurgent Governance and Civilian Life during War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

        Copy on order for the Library.

      3. Governance - Jeremy M. Weinstein

        Chapter  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      4. Arjona, Ana. 2016. Rebelocracy: Social Order in the Colombian Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

        Copy on order for the Library.

      5. Zukerman Daly, Sarah. 2016. Organized Violence after Civil War: The Geography of Recruitment in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Esp. Chap. 3 ("Violence and Peace in Colombia"), pp. 44–71.

        Copy on order for the Library.

  9. Week 7: Violence – Palestine 17 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why do armed groups use selective or indiscriminate violence against civilians? Are different types of groups more likely to use one type of violence rather than the other?

      Tutorial Questions: How do Fatah and Hamas compare in terms of their use of violence? What is more important in accounting for their behavior: dynamics within or between them?

    2. Required Reading 3 items
      1. Inside rebellion: the politics of insurgent violence - Jeremy M. Weinstein 2007

        Book  Parts of chapter 6, 'Violence', pp. 198–217. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      2. The terrorist's dilemma: managing violent covert organizations - Jacob N. Shapiro 2013

        Book  Chapter 8, 'Preference Divergence and Control in Palestine', pp. 205–248. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading 13 items
      1. Hamas: The Islamic Resistance Movement - Beverley Milton-Edwards, Stephen Farrell 2010

        Book 

      2. Pearlman, Wendy. 2011. Violence, Nonviolence, and the Palestinian National Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

        Copy on order for the Library.

  10. III. Alliance Politics

  11. Week 8: Alliances between Groups – Afghanistan I 15 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why do armed groups form alliances with each other? In what ways do they cooperate?

      Tutorial Questions: Which were the main armed groups in Afghanistan between 1979 and 1998? How and why did the alliances among them evolve over time?

    2. Required Reading 1 item
      1. Alliance Formation in Civil Wars - Fotini Christia 2012 (electronic book)

        Book  Introduction and chapters 1–4, pp. 1–125.

    3. Further Reading 13 items
      1. Alliances between Militant Groups - Navin A. Bapat, Kanisha D. Bond 2012

        Article 

      2. Dorronsoro, Gilles. 2005. Revolution Unending: Afghanistan, 1979 to the Present. London: Hurst.

        Copy on order for the Library.

      3. The Afghanistan Wars - William Maley 2009

        Book  Introduction and chapters 1-10, pp. 1-209.

      4. Rashid, Ahmed. 2010. Taliban: The Power of Militant Islam in Afghanistan and Beyond. New paperback edition. London: I.B. Tauris.

        Copy on order for the Library.

      5. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: state formation and collapse in the international system - Barnett R. Rubin 2002

        Book  Especially Part III, 'The Islamic Resistance', pp. 177-264.

      6. Sinno, Abdulkader H. 2008. Organizations at War in Afghanistan and Beyond. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Chaps. 5–9, pp. 101–277.

        Copy on order for the Library.

      7. Organizing Rebellion in Afghanistan - Paul Staniland

        Chapter  Required reading for week 11.

  12. Week 9: Alliances with States – DRC 17 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why do armed groups form alliances with foreign states? More broadly, why do they engage in diplomacy with the outside world?

      Tutorial Questions: With which states were the RCD-K/ML, the UPC, the FNI, and the FRPI allied between 1999 and 2003? Why were their alliances and the groups themselves so unstable?

    2. Required Reading 4 items
      1. Explaining External Support for Insurgent Groups - Idean Salehyan, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, David E. Cunningham 2011

        Article 

    3. Further Reading 12 items
      1. The First African World War - Filip Reyntjens

        Chapter 

  13. IV. Organizational Outcomes

  14. Week 10: Cohesion or Fragmentation – Kashmir 14 items
    1. Lecture Questions: Why do some armed groups remain cohesive collective actors over long periods of time while others splinter into rival organizations?

      Tutorial Questions: How do the JKLF and the Hizbul Mujahideen compare in terms of cohesion and fragmentation? What explains their similarities and/or differences?

    2. Required Reading 2 items
      1. Networks of rebellion: explaining insurgent cohesion and collapse - Paul Staniland 2014

        Book  Chapters 1–4, pp. 1–99. Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading 11 items
      1. A Plague of Initials: Fragmentation, Cohesion, and Infighting in Civil Wars - Kristin M. Bakke, Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham, Lee J. M. Seymour 2012

        Article 

      2. Demystifying Kashmir - Navnita Chadha Behera 2006

        Book 

      3. Kapur, S. Paul. 2016. Jihad as Grand Strategy: Islamist Militancy, National Security, and the Pakistani State. New York: Oxford University Press.

        Copy on order for the Library.

      4. India, Pakistan and the secret Jihad: the covert war in Kashmir, 1947-2004 - Praveen Swami 2013

        Book  First edition also available at classmark DS485.K27S8.

  15. Week 11: Success or Failure – Afghanistan II 10 items
    1. Lecture Questions: What does it mean to 'succeed' or 'fail' for different types of armed groups? What explains these outcomes?

      Tutorial Questions: In relative terms, how successful have different Afghan armed groups been since 1979? What accounts for their successes and failures?

    2. Required Reading 4 items
      1. Revisit Christia 2012 from week 8.

      2. Organizing Rebellion in Afghanistan - Paul Staniland

        Chapter  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

    3. Further Reading 5 items
      1. How Insurgencies End - Ben Connable, Martin C. Libicki 2010

        Book 

      2. How terrorism ends: understanding the decline and demise of terrorist campaigns - Audrey Kurth Cronin 2009

        Book  Available in the Library and as an e-book.

      3. On Afghanistan, see further reading for week 8, especially Sinno 2008.

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